Author: Frank Schuler

Frank Schuler is originally from Switzerland and reports on cannabis industry and policy news from around the world.
zurich switzerland

Limited Adult-Use Cannabis Sales Project Is Moving Forward In Zurich

Switzerland’s experiment with adult-use cannabis pilot programs is reportedly expanding, with Zurich’s city government and the Zurich University Hospital indicating today that the Federal Office of Public Health has given the ‘greenlight’ for the local pilot program to proceed later this year.

A cannabis pilot program is, in theory, designed to permit limited local cannabis commerce for the purpose of gaining insight and helping craft potential national cannabis industry laws, rules, and regulations. It gives lawmakers and regulators the opportunity to see what works and what does not work at the local level to help them be better suited to create and implement national policies.

Zurich will not be the first jurisdiction in Switzerland to launch limited adult-use sales as part of a pilot program. Back in early February Basel, Switzerland launched its pilot program with 180 participants after experiencing various delays. The Basel program will eventually involve 374 people total, all aged between 18 and 76.

The pilot program in Zurich, which is the result of a legal amendment adopted by the Swiss parliament in 2020 allowing for adult-use cannabis trials, will be considerably larger than the one in Basel. However, it will still be very limited in size compared to other legal adult-use markets around the globe. Per Swiss Info:

The project, Zuri Can – Cannabis with Responsibility, is intended to study the impact of regulated cannabis supply on the consumption and health of consumers.

The project was delayed last October following objections by the health office.

The sale of cannabis products from pharmacies and social clubs to control groups is now due to begin next August.

A maximum of 2,100 participants can take part in the large-scale pilot project in Switzerland’s biggest city.

Meanwhile, right on the other side of the border between Switzerland and Germany, adult-use cannabis legalization is on the move at the national level. It will be very interesting to see if/when Germany legalizes cannabis for adult use and launches regulated sales nationwide how it may affect Switzerland’s pilot programs.

Presumably, at least some amount of consumers that would have otherwise participated in a Switzerland pilot program will instead go to Germany to make their cannabis purchases.

Even for those that participate in the program at home, many will still travel to Germany for various reasons and consume cannabis there instead of back in Switzerland, and that may skew the results of the cannabis trials, at least to some degree. Switzerland would be better served by passing its own national cannabis legalization measure.

basel, Switzerland, zurich

older elderly senior citizen seniors

Australian Researchers Find Cannabis Oils To Be Effective For Symptom Management In Older Patients

Neurological disorders affect many people around the globe. In fact, it is estimated that as many as 1 billion people across the globe suffer from some type of neurological disorder. People over 50 years old are more likely to develop a neurological condition compared to younger people.

Neurological disorders are diseases that affect the central and peripheral nervous systems, including the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscles.

Various pharmaceutical medications are regularly prescribed to help address symptoms of neurological conditions among elderly patients. Just as symptoms are wide-ranging, so too are the medications. One medication that is showing promise is cannabis, as demonstrated in a recent study out of Australia. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Sydney, Australia: The use of plant-derived cannabis oils containing balanced ratios of THC and CBD is generally safe and effective for patients suffering from neurological diseases, according to observational trial data published in the Journal of Clinical Medicine.

Australian researchers assessed the sustained use of cannabis extracts in 157 patients with treatment-resistant neurological, musculoskeletal, autoimmune, or anti-inflammatory disorders. (Under Australian law, physicians may only authorize medical cannabis to patients that have been unresponsive to conventional prescription treatments.)

Investigators reported that patients age 65 or older and/or those suffering from neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, peripheral neuropathy, and multiple sclerosis, perceived the greatest overall benefits from cannabis therapy. Their findings are consistent with those of several other studies reporting health-related quality of life benefits among older patients who consume cannabis.

Subjects were most likely to report cannabis to be effective for improving sleep and for reducing pain – findings that are consistent with other studies. By contrast, patients suffering from spondylosis were least likely to perceive benefits from cannabis therapy.

Authors concluded: “This retrospective medical record review describes the population characteristics of patients using medicinal cannabis at a clinic in Sydney, Australia and provides data on the effectiveness and safety of medicinal cannabis treatment on patient conditions and indications. … [Its findings] indicate that medicinal cannabis, in a balanced formulation, may address a variety of non-cancer conditions and indications concurrently and can be safely prescribed by a medical doctor.”

Full text of the study, “A retrospective medical record review of adults with non-cancer diagnoses prescribed medical cannabis,” appears in the Journal of Clinical Medicine. Additional information on cannabis use among older populations is available from NORML Fact Sheet ‘Cannabis Use by Older Populations.’


senior elderly

Another Study Finds That Cannabis Products Improve Health-Related Quality Of Life

The cannabis plant is helping more and more suffering patients every day thanks to cannabis policies being reformed in a growing number of jurisdictions around the globe. While there is still much work to do, more patients are receiving safe access to medical cannabis, and that is a great thing.

Cannabis studies are increasing in frequency, and the knowledge that is being unlocked in the process will help humans for generations to come. A recent study from the United Kingdom is part of that growing body of evidence. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

London, United Kingdom: Patients’ consumption of medical cannabis products is well-tolerated and is associated with significant improvements in their health-related quality of life, according to observational data published in the journal Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology.

British investigators assessed the safety and efficacy of cannabis-derived products in 2,833 patients enrolled in the UK Medical Cannabis Registry. All of the participants possessed a doctor’s authorization to access cannabis products. (Since 2018, specialists have been permitted to prescribe cannabis-based medicinal products to patients unresponsive to conventional medications.)

Patients enrolled in the registry suffered from a variety of disorders, including chronic painanxietypost-traumatic stressdepressionmigraineinflammatory bowel disease, and other afflictions. Study participants consumed cannabis by either vaporizing marijuana flowers or by ingesting plant-derived extracts containing both THC and CBD. Researchers assessed subjects’ symptoms compared to baseline at one, three, six, and twelve months.

Authors reported that the majority of patients experienced sustained improvements following cannabis therapy. Adverse events associated with cannabis were typically mild, with the most frequently reported side-effects being dry mouth and fatigue.

They concluded: “This observational study suggests that initiating treatment with CBMPs [cannabis-based medicinal products] is associated with an improvement in general HRQoL [health-related quality of life], as well as sleep- and anxiety-specific symptoms up to 12 months in patients with chronic illness. … Most patients tolerated the treatment well, however, the risk of AEs [adverse events] should be considered before initiating CBMPs. In particular, female and cannabis-naïve patients are at increased likelihood of experiencing adverse events. These findings may help to inform current clinical practice, but most importantly, highlights the need for further clinical trials to determine causality and generate guidelines to optimize therapy with CBMPs.”

Full text of the study, “An observational study of safety and clinical outcome measures across patient groups in the United Kingdom Medical Cannabis Registry,” appears in Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology.

United Kingdom

cannabis flower plants buds garden

Cannabis Use Is Effective In Chronic Pain And Anxiety Patients According To UK Study

Chronic pain and anxiety are two of the most common health conditions diagnosed around the world. In fact, it is estimated that as many as 20% of people on the planet suffer from chronic pain to some degree.

Anxiety also affects a large number of people globally, with it being estimated that over 264 million people around the world are now diagnosed with some form of anxiety disorder. It’s quite possible that the number is actually higher due to the lack of healthcare access in many parts of the planet.

For both conditions, the prescribing of pharmaceutical medications is standard, which is unfortunate. Many pharmaceutical drugs are not only ineffective – they can be harmful and addictive. This is not to say that is the case every time, however, it’s definitely a cause for concern.

The cannabis plant is significantly safer compared to many pharmaceutical drugs, and for many patients, cannabis can be more effective. Below is information regarding a recent study in the United Kingdom that found that cannabis is effective in treating chronic pain and anxiety, via a news release from NORML:

London, United Kingdom: The use of cannabis products is associated with symptomatic improvements in pain patients with and without comorbid anxiety, according to observational trial data published in the journal Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics.

British investigators assessed the safety and efficacy of cannabis-derived products in 1,254 chronic pain patients. Of these, 711 subjects were also diagnosed with anxiety. Study subjects were participants in the UK Medical Cannabis Registry, and each of them possessed a doctor’s authorization to access cannabis. Study participants consumed cannabis by either vaporizing marijuana flower or by ingesting plant-derived extracts containing both THC and CBD. Researchers assessed subjects’ symptoms compared to baseline at one, three, and six-months.

Cannabis treatment was associated with “significant improvements in all primary outcomes … at all timepoints,” authors reported. Those with comorbid anxiety reported greater improvements in health-related quality of life as compared to those subjects diagnosed with chronic pain only. Both cohorts achieved significant reductions in their opioid consumption over the course of the study – a finding that is consistent with dozens of other observational trials.

Authors concluded: “A potential association between initiation of CBMPs [cannabis-based medicinal products] and improvements in pain and HRQoL [health-related quality of life], as well as reductions in opioid consumption and an acceptable AE [adverse events] profile in both cohorts was found, complimenting previous UKMCR studies. Moreover, CP [chronic pain] patients with co-morbid anxiety may achieve better HRQoL outcomes and potentially pain outcomes due to CBMPs’ peripheral and central effects.”

Several placebo-controlled trials document the ability of either inhaled or vaporized herbal cannabis to significantly mitigate pain in various patient populations, including those suffering from HIVdiabetesspinal cord injury, or severe treatment-resistant neuropathy (nerve pain). Several observational trials similarly show reduced anxiety in patients taking medical cannabis. Data published earlier this year in the journal JAMA Network Open reported that nearly one in four pain patients residing in states where medical cannabis access is legal self-identify as marijuana consumers.

In recent months, British researchers have published findings from several observational studies involving patients enrolled in the UK Medical Cannabis Registry, including those diagnosed with post-traumatic stressdepressionrefractory epilepsyheadaches, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Full text of the study, “Comparing the effects of medical cannabis for chronic pain patients with and without comorbid anxiety: A cohort study,” appears in Expert Review of NeurotherapeuticsAdditional information on cannabis and pain management is available from NORML’s publication, Clinical Applications for Cannabis and Cannabinoids.

United Kingdom

cannabis plant flower bud garden

Recent Cannabis Study Provides Hope For Tinnitus Patients

Tinnitus involves people hearing a ringing or other noise in their ears. Sometimes it is constant, and sometimes it comes and goes. However, as any tinnitus sufferer will be quick to point out, it’s annoying every time.

For people that do not suffer from tinnitus, it may sound like a mild annoyance. Yet, tinnitus can actually prove to be debilitating in extreme cases. Imagine trying to fall asleep at night and get a good night’s rest when you have a constant sound in your ear that you cannot stop. Now, imagine what life is like without proper sleep. It doesn’t take a medical professional to see the problem.

Thankfully, recent research out of Canada suggests that the cannabis plant may be able to help people that suffer from tinnitus. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Ottawa, Canada: Patients suffering from tinnitus (ringing in the ears) frequently report using cannabis products for symptom relief, according to survey data published in the Journal of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery.

A team of Canadian scientists surveyed 45 patients with the affliction. Over one in five identified as current cannabis consumers and 80 percent of them reported it to be beneficial in treating symptoms of the disorder, including dizziness, anxiety, pain, and sleep disturbances.

Over 90 percent of those surveyed said that they “would consider cannabis as a treatment for their tinnitus.”

Authors concluded: “This is the first study to assess perspectives and usage patterns of cannabis in patients experiencing tinnitus. The results of this study demonstrate an active interest amongst patients with tinnitus to consider cannabis as a potential adjunctive treatment for symptom management. Moreover, cannabis use is both common and can be beneficial in this patient population. … This data may lay the groundwork for future research and clinical trials on cannabis use for tinnitus alleviation.”

Full text of the study, “Cannabis use among tinnitus patients: Consumption patterns and attitudes,” appears in the Journal of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery.


Canadian currency money

Yukon Has The Highest Per Person Cannabis Sales Ratio In Canada

Statistics Canada released new sales data pertaining to the nation’s emerging legal cannabis industry for the period of April 1, 2021 to March 31, 2022. During that time period, Canada’s legal adult-use cannabis industry generated roughly $1.6 billion for federal and provincial governments.

To put the $1.6 billion figure into perspective, Canada’s alcohol industry generated roughly $13.6 billion during the same time period. The figures for both alcohol and cannabis include taxes at all jurisdictional levels, as well as fees related to licenses and permits.

Overall, sales for adult-use cannabis products across Canada (provincial cannabis authorities and other retail outlets) totaled roughly $4 billion between April 1, 2021 to March 31, 2022, which is “equivalent to $131 per person of legal age to consume cannabis” according to Statistics Canada.

Yukon, which is the smallest and westernmost of Canada’s three territories, had the largest per-person cannabis sales ratio at $291. Yukon was followed by Alberta ($210), Saskatchewan ($185), Nova Scotia ($125), and Manitoba ($107). Quebec had the lowest ratio at $89 per person of legal age. Data from certain jurisdictions is apparently ‘suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.’

Dried cannabis flower was by far the most popular form of cannabis sold during the specified time frame, accounting for 71.1% of all adult-use cannabis sales in Canada during the calendar year. Inhaled extracts made up 18.1% of overall sales and edibles gained 4.1% of the market share according to the available data. Below is a breakdown of market share by cannabis product, provinces, and territories according to Statistics Canada:

Canada cannabis sales breakdown 2021 2022

The data released by Statistics Canada comes around the same time findings were published from a very insightful survey analysis dealing with reported cannabis consumer spending habits.

According to the study, which was conducted by investigators affiliated with the University of Waterloo School of Public Health, “In 2021, the percentage of consumers sourcing all their products legally in the past 12 months ranged from 49 percent of solid concentrate consumers in 2021 to 82 percent of cannabis drink consumers.”

The growing success of adult-use cannabis legalization in Canada will not only benefit consumers within the nation’s boundaries but also consumers in other jurisdictions where lawmakers are pursuing legalization and keeping a close eye on Canada to see how things continue to develop.


canada flag

Cannabis Consumers In Canada Continue To Transition To The Regulated Market

Canada was the second nation to pass a national adult-use legalization measure back in 2018, with only Uruguay preceding Canada in doing so (2013). Yet, unlike Uruguay, Canada allows legal sales to anyone of legal age whereas Uruguay limits it to residents only.

As such, Canada provides the best example for international observers to monitor and see what is working with the nation’s regulated industry and what is not working. With other nations considering legalization, any insight Canada can provide is valuable.

One of the biggest measures of success for legalization is whether or not consumers transition away from the unregulated market into the regulated market. According to a recent study in Canada, that is exactly what is occurring, and at an increasing rate. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Waterloo, Canada: Canadian cannabis consumers are steadily transitioning from the unregulated market to the legal market, according to data published in the Harm Reduction Journal.

Investigators affiliated with the University of Waterloo, School of Public Health surveyed over 15,000 cannabis consumers regarding where they obtained their products. Researchers evaluated data for the years 2019 to 2021. (Canada instituted licensed retail sales of cannabis products in October 2018.)

Authors reported that the percentage of respondents legally sourcing their cannabis products increased year over year. Respondents were most likely to purchase cannabis-infused drinks, oils, and capsules from the legal marketplace. About 55 percent of respondents said they obtained cannabis flower exclusively from legally licensed retailers.

In 2019, fewer than half of consumers acknowledged obtaining their cannabis products from legal sources. According to separate consumer survey data published last year, that percentage rose to nearly 70 percent in 2020.

“Legal sourcing of cannabis was greater in 2021 than 2020 for all ten cannabis products [surveyed]. In 2021, the percentage of consumers sourcing all their products legally in the past 12 months ranged from 49 percent of solid concentrate consumers in 2021 to 82 percent of cannabis drink consumers,” investigators reported. “Transitioning consumers of all cannabis products into the regulated market is important for public health and safety. Future studies should continue to examine cannabis product sourcing in Canada over time, as well as ways to displace the illegal market for all cannabis products without also promoting the use of high-potency cannabis products.”

Full text of the study, “Legal sourcing of ten cannabis products in the Canadian cannabis market, 2019-2021: A repeat cross-sectional study,” appears in the Harm Reduction Journal.


stethescope doctor medical hospital

Cannabis In Subjects Pre-Treated With Pain Medications Doesn’t Negatively Impact Breathing

Opioids are exponentially more harmful compared to cannabis, however, there are times when both forms of medicine have to be consumed by the same patient on the same day. This could be due to various valid reasons and is entirely situational.

In those limited instances where consuming both medications is necessary, some medical professionals worry about any type of undesired side effects that may occur when the two medications interact in the patient’s body.

One lingering question seems to relate to how breathing may be affected, if at all. Fortunately, a team of researchers in the Netherlands investigated the matter and found no negative impact. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Leiden, The Netherlands: Cannabis inhalation in subjects pre-treated with oxycodone doesn’t negatively impact their breathing, according to clinical trial data published in the British Journal of Anesthesia.

Dutch investigators compared inhaled cannabis versus placebo in 18 healthy volunteers pre-treated with 20mgs of the prescription opioid oxycodone. Participants inhaled cannabis flower either 1.5 hours or 4.5 hours following opioid administration.

Researchers reported that the use of oxycodone alone was associated with depressed respiration. However, the combined use of THC and opioids failed to enhance this effect. “Our data do imply that oxycodone was solely responsible for the respiration depression in the oxycodone/THC arm of the study,” authors reported.

They concluded: “[I]n human volunteers, THC has no significant effect on ventilatory control after placebo or oxycodone pretreatment. This suggests that cannabinoid receptors do not interact with respiratory pathways in the brainstem, or that CB1 receptor activation is offset by an opposing effect at CB2 receptors.”

Unlike opioids, which are responsible for over 75,000 overdose deaths annually, cannabinoids are not defined as central nervous depressants and they are incapable of causing lethal overdose.

Controlled trials have shown that the co-administration of cannabis and opioids produces enhanced analgesic effects. Patients prescribed opioids typically reduce or eliminate their intake of opiate-based drugs following cannabis therapy.

Full text of the study, “Inhaled delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol does not enhance oxycodone-induced respiratory depression: Randomized controlled trial in healthy volunteers,” appears in the British Journal of AnesthesiaAdditional information is available from the NORML Fact Sheet, ‘Relationship Between Marijuana and Opioids.’

the netherlands

cbd cannabidiol

Thailand Study Finds CBD Treatment Effective At Treating Canker Sores

Canker sores are not a fun topic to discuss, however, they are even less fun to endure. Canker sores, also referred to as aphthous ulcers, are small, shallow sores that develop inside the mouth or at the base of the gums.

According to the Mayo Clinic, “The precise cause of canker sores remains unclear, though researchers suspect that a combination of factors contributes to outbreaks, even in the same person.” Potential contributing factors include, but are not limited to: injury, foot sensitivities, stress, and lack of vitamins and minerals.

A recent study based in Thailand examined CBD as a potential treatment for canker sores, and the researchers’ findings are promising. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Bangkok, Thailand: The use of a topical agent containing trace levels of plant-derived CBD reduces ulcer size and promotes healing in subjects with recurrent aphthous ulcers (a/k/a canker sores), according to clinical trial data published in the journal BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies. 

A team of Thai researchers compared the use of a topical patch containing 0.1 percent CBD with a placebo in 100 healthy subjects with recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAU). The CBD ointment was applied three times per day for seven days. Ulcer size was measured on days zero, two, five, and seven.

Authors reported that topical CBD “reduced ulcer size and accelerated ulcer healing without side effects.”

They concluded: “This clinical study demonstrated that topical 0.1 percent CBD reduced ulcer size and accelerated ulcer healing without any reported local (signs of allergic and anaphylactic reactions) or systemic (vital sign and blood test alteration) side effects.

Furthermore, in the RCT [randomly controlled trial], topical CBD exerted an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing the erythematous border size in the early stage and decreasing pain intensity in the late stage of RAU. Thus, CBD may be appropriate for RAU patients who choose not to take topical steroids, except for cases where CBD is contraindicated.”

The findings are consistent with those of other trials and case reports finding that the topical application of CBD promotes wound healing in patients with scleroderma,  refractory leg ulcers and with the rare skin blistering disease epidermolysis bullosa. The topical application of cannabinoids, and of CBD in particular, has demonstrated benefits in the treatment of a variety of skin-related conditions, including psoriasiserythemapruritis, and acne.

Full text of the study, “Efficacy and safety of topical 0.1% cannabidiol for managing recurrent aphthous ulcers: A randomized controlled trial,” appears in BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies.

CBD, Thailand

hemp seed

Hemp May Be Increasingly Used As A Plant-Based Meat Ingredient

The hemp plant is one of the most versatile crops on earth, capable of producing numerous textiles and wellness products. According to new research out of Japan, it may also be capable of revolutionizing the food processing industry, particularly as it pertains to the production of plant-based meats.

A team of investigators associated with the Institute of Food Research, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization in Ibaraki, Japan examined the hemp plant’s usefulness to the food processing industry.

“In the era of SDGs, useful plants which provide valuable industrial outputs and at the same time pose less impact on the environment should be explored. Hemp seems one of the most relevant gluten-free crop plants to meet such requirements.” the investigators stated about their research.

As the researchers pointed out in their findings, which were published in Foods (an Open Access Journal by MDPI), the hemp plant requires far fewer pesticides and consumes less water during the growth cycle compared to many other crops.

“This short review investigates hemp’s sustainability as a plant as well as its utility value as a highly nutritional material in the food industry. Recent application research of hemp protein in food processing includes plant milk, emulsifiers, fortification of gluten-free bread, plant-based meat production, as well as membrane formation. These studies have revealed distinctive properties of hemp protein, especially in relation to disulfide (S-S)/sulfhydryl (-SH)-mediated interactions with protein from other sources.” the researchers stated in their abstract.

“Hemp seeds are high-protein, low-carbohydrate, and rich in dietary fiber and unsaturated fatty acids. After expression of oil from the seeds, the residual mass is a useful protein-rich material for food processing. Moreover, hemp seed protein has distinctive characteristics suitable for developing new foods such as an emulsifier, plant-based meat, and gas-retaining membrane. The cysteine-rich protein feature realizes unique disulfide-mediated interactions with protein from other sources and is thus expected to facilitate development of new food materials.” the researchers concluded.

The team of investigators also pointed out in their conclusion that hemp protein is less soluble and a higher temperature is needed for processing compared to other plant proteins, so further research is warranted regarding what it takes to achieve suitable reaction conditions for hemp protein.

According to international data company Grand View Research, the global plant-based meat market was valued at over $5 billion in 2021 and is expected to expand at a compound annual growth rate of 19.3% between now and 2030.


cannabis extracts rick simpson oil concentrates

Italian Study Finds THC-Dominant Extracts Reduce Alzheimer’s-Induced Agitation

As of 2012, researchers estimated that as many as 24 million people globally were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease and that the number of people diagnosed with the condition would double every 20 years for the foreseeable future.

“Alzheimer disease is the leading cause of dementia beginning with impaired memory. The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease include diffuse and neuritic extracellular amyloid plaques in brain that are frequently surrounded by dystrophic neurites and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles.” stated the authors of the previously cited study from 2012.

It is still unknown what exactly causes Alzheimer’s, although medical professionals seem to think that it’s a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Unfortunately, there is no known cure for the condition.

The cannabis plant may be able to help reduce Alzheimer’s-induced agitation according to a new study out of Italy. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Modena, Italy: The twice-daily use of THC-dominant plant-derived extracts is associated with symptom mitigation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), according to observational trial data published in the Italian journal La Clinica Terapeutica.

Italian researchers assessed the safety and efficacy of cannabis extracts containing 22 percent THC and 0.5 percent CBD in 30 patients with mild to severe Alzheimer’s disease. Study participants administered the extracts twice daily for 12 weeks.

Investigators reported reductions in patients’ agitation, apathy, irritability, sleep disturbances, and eating disturbances following cannabis treatment. They further acknowledged “lower levels of physically and verbally aggressive behaviors … in all patients.” Forty-five percent of subjects experienced “a significant decrease in cognitive impairment.” None of the patients complained of any adverse side effects. All of the patients exhibited increased quality of life and a “decrease in caregiver burden and costs of medical care and assistance.”

Authors concluded, “The results of our clinical trial suppose the effectiveness and in particular the safety of [a natural] CBD/THC preparation in two main symptoms of AD, agitation and weight loss.”

Prior trials have demonstrated the ability of both natural cannabis extracts and synthetic cannabinoids to mitigate various symptoms of Alzheimer’s. Preclinical data has shown that both THC and synthetic THC agonists can modulate neuroinflammation and the formation of amyloid plaque in the brain – both of which are believed to play a key role in the development of AD.

Full text of the study, “Oral THC | CBD cannabis extract in main symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease: Agitation and weight loss,” appears in La Clinica Terapeutica. Additional information on cannabinoids and Alzheimer’s disease is available from NORML’s publicationClinical Applications for Cannabis and Cannabinoids.


horse equine equestrian horses

International Researchers Cure Horse’s Behavioral Disorders Using 4-Weeks Of CBD Treatment

A team of international researchers from Italy and Brazil published findings earlier this month in the science publication Veterinary and Animal Science in which they reported a “successful outcome of four weeks-therapy with CBD” in a clinical case involving a 22-year-old Quarter horse that was experiencing behavioral disorders.

The clinical case study was a collaboration between investigators from the Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences at the University of Bologna in Italy and the Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences at the University Metodista of São Paulo in Brazil.

At the heart of the study was a 22-year-old mare subject that was reportedly suffering from “chronic crib-biting and wind-sucking,” which are common behavioral disorders in horses for various reasons, including but not limited to poor welfare. According to the researchers, “Any alteration from the conditions found in nature can lead to the occurrence of some specific behaviours, called stereotypies which are characterised as repetitive, consistent patterns of behaviour usually defined as having no apparent ultimate or proximal functions.”

“According to the owner report, the mare had presented this behaviour for the past 15 years; previous clinical approaches, such as a cervical collar, environmental enhancement, diet change, and chemical tranquilizers (acepromazine 0,1 mg/kg T.I.D) were not successful.” the researchers stated in their findings.

“At anamnesis, it was revealed that the mare used to be a sport horse with an intensive training routine. Once her sports career was over, the owners retired her and kept her partially in the paddock and partially in the box (average 3 h/day at the paddock). The sport career was over at the age of 10 years old, while the behaviour disorder started at the age of 7 years old, getting progressively worse over the years.” the researchers stated about the horse that was the focus of the study.

“The horse was placed in therapy with commercially available isolated CBD 200 mg/ml at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/daily q12h per os. The dose and frequency were determinate based on previous case report and veterinary pharmacological studies (Ellis and Contino 2021). During the therapy, there were no changes in food quality/quantity or the daily routine of the mare.” the researchers stated about the CBD treatment specifically.

“To assess the results of the therapy, the mare was followed up under constant observation, for 7 days before the therapy and then during the treatment by the veterinary team divided into shifts, which provided the number of hours spent with the stereotypy (Fig. 2a) pre- and during administration of CBD. The mare was also weighted weekly, with the first weight measured at the start of the 7 days observation period prior to therapy.” the researchers stated about assessing the subject’s treatment.

“The results after 30 days of therapy were positive and no regression in behaviour was seen by the owners after the treatment ended. To the best of the Authors’ knowledge, this is the first published case describing the successful treatment and management of a chronic crib-biting, wind-sucking horse with the oral administration of CBD, enhancing welfare and life quality.” the researchers concluded.

This may be the first study of its kind, however, it’s not the first animal science study in general. This latest study adds to a growing body of evidence which proves that just as cannabis can provide wellness benefits to humans, so too can it do the same for animals. Medical cannabis as it pertains to veterinary medicine is an emerging sector of the medical cannabis industry, and a particularly promising one at that.

According to Grand View Research the global veterinary medicine industry was worth an estimated $44.59 billion in 2022 alone.

brazil, italy

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