Tag: israel

woman smelling smell cannabis plant garden outdoor sungrown terpene terpenes

Terpenes Enhance THC’s Ability To Interact With Endogenous Receptor

For many years very little was known about cannabis terpenes. Terpenes are the compounds contained in the cannabis plant that gives it its smell. Scientists currently estimate that the cannabis plant contains over 150 different terpenes, with different genetics containing different ratios of terpene levels.

An example of a cannabis terpene is pinene, which is one of the most common terpenes found in cannabis terpene profile testing results. Pinene is known for having a forest-type smell, and can also be found in pine nuts, rosemary, and sage.

Researchers in Israel recently examined cannabis terpenes and how they interact with the endogenous CB1 receptor, and what they found regarding THC’s interaction with the receptor and terpenes could change the way cannabis products and treatments are developed going forward. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Jerusalem, Israel: Terpenes in the cannabis plant enhance the ability of THC to interact with the endogenous CB1 receptor, potentially heightening its effects, according to preclinical data published in the journal Biochemical Pharmacology.

Israeli scientists evaluated the role of terpenes in CB1 receptor-mediated functions. Researchers also assessed the extent to which terpenes acted as direct CB1 receptor agonists and as modulators of THC agonism.

Researchers reported certain terpenes – including borneol, geraniol, limonene, linalool, ocimene, sabinene, and terpineol – amplified THC activity at the CB1 receptor, even at low quantities.

They reported: “The results demonstrate that all terpenes, when tested individually, activate CB1 receptors, at about 10-50 percent of the activation by THC alone. The combination of some of these terpenes with THC significantly increases the activity of the CB1 receptor, compared to THC alone. In some cases, several fold. Importantly, this amplification is evident at terpene to THC ratios similar to those in the cannabis plant, which reflect very low terpene concentrations.”

Authors concluded: “The use of selected terpenes may enable reducing the THC dose in some treatments, and as a result, potentially minimizing the THC-related adverse effects. This would also help in adjusting the treatment to more sensitive populations such as children and elderly. Enrichment with selected terpenes may allow for composition adjustment to personal needs and to changes during chronic use, such as for daytime versus for sleep.”

The findings expand upon those of a 2021 study documenting that certain terpenes activate CB1 and CB2 receptors, and that the combined administration of cannabinoids and terpenes produce additive effects. Authors of that study similarly suggested, “[T]erpenes could be used to enhance the analgesic properties of cannabis/cannabinoid therapy, without worsening the side effects of cannabinoid treatment.”

A study published earlier this year reported that cannabis flowers with elevated levels of the terpenes myrcene and terpinolene are associated with greater perceived symptom relief among patients.

Full text of the study, “Selected cannabis terpenes synergize with THC to produce increased CB1 receptor activation,” appears in Biochemical Pharmacology.



cannabis plant garden

Israeli Tourette Syndrome Patients Report Improvements Following Cannabis Therapy

Global statisticians estimate that around 0.5-1% of the planet’s population has been diagnosed with some level of Tourette Syndrome, although the true diagnosis rate of people suffering from the condition could be larger due to gaps in identification and treatment in some parts of the globe.

According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, “Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by sudden, repetitive, rapid, and unwanted movements or vocal sounds called tics.” Currently, there is no cure for the condition.

Various treatments for Tourette Syndrome exist, with common ones being dopamine blockers, Botox injections, ADHD medications, anti-depressants, and anti-seizure medications. All of those treatments can yield possible undesirable side effects. Fortunately, a recent study in Israel found that cannabis may help. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Tel Aviv, Israel: Tourette Syndrome (TS) patients report improvements in their quality of life and reductions in their use of prescription medications following cannabis therapy, according to data published in the journal Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research.

Israeli investigators surveyed patients prior to and six-months following cannabis treatment. Subjects in the study consumed products containing roughly twice as much THC as CBD.

Participants reported statistically significant improvements in their quality of life and employment status following cannabis treatment. Most subjects also reported reduced symptoms of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive tendencies. Patients reduced their use of prescription medicines.

By contrast, subjects did not report statistically significant improvements in their frequency of either vocal or motor tics during the study period.

Authors concluded: “Subjective reports from TS patients suggest that medical cannabis may improve their quality of life and comorbidities. More studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of medical cannabis.”

A limited number of clinical trials have shown both oral THC and inhaled cannabis to be associated with symptom improvements in TS patients, including decreased tic severity and reductions in obsessive-compulsive behaviors. The results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial published last month in the journal Psychiatry Research reported that patients with more severe TS symptoms experienced symptomatic improvements following the consumption of a balanced formulation of oral THC and CBD.

Full text of the study, “Using medical cannabis in patients with Gilles de la Tourette’s Syndrome in a real-world setting” appears in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research. Additional information on cannabinoids and TS is available from NORML’s publicationClinical Applications for Cannabis and Cannabinoids.


bed rest nap sleep insomnia

Cannabis Use Prior To Bedtime Is Associated With Improved Sleep According To Israeli Study

Consuming cannabis prior to bedtime is associated with improved sleep in patients with treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress (PTS) according to data recently published in the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry.

Researchers in Israel conducted a study involving a cohort of 14 subjects with combat-related traumatic stress. All of the study’s participants previously explored various conventional treatments with those treatments proving to be unsuccessful.

According to the researchers, none of the patients were cannabis consumers prior to enrolling in the study. Study participants consumed cannabis ‘in the evenings’ in an outpatient setting for a period of at least six-months as part of the study parameters.

Investigators reported: “After treatment with cannabis, total sleep score, subjective sleep quality, and sleep duration significantly improved. … Total PTSD symptom score and its subdomains (intrusiveness, avoidance, and alertness) showed [also] improvement.” By contrast, cannabis treatment was not associated with reducing patients’ frequency of nightmares. None of the patients reported any side-effects from cannabis, nor did any elect to cease using cannabis prior to the end of the study period.

“To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published study examining long-term cannabis efficacy in chronic combat treatment-resistant PTSD patients,” authors concluded. “The study’s findings show an overall improvement in sleep quality and duration, as well as a decrease in PTSD symptoms. … Future research should clarify the long-term effects of cannabis on different groups of patients suffering from PTSD.”

Post-traumatic stress has been a qualifying condition for medical cannabis in Israel since 2014. Currently, it is estimated that roughly 10 percent of all Israelis authorized to access medical cannabis use it to treat various symptoms of PTS.

This latest study builds on prior studies, which have similarly reported improvements in sleep duration and in insomnia in patients with and without PTS. The enactment of adult-use cannabis legalization is also correlated with a decrease in the sale of over-the-counter sleep aid medications.


microscope lab labratory research

Cannabinoid Combination Possesses Synergistic Anti-Cancer Effects In Cellular Model

The cannabis plant is made up of dozens of cannabinoids. THC and CBD may currently garner the most headlines, however, other cannabinoids are growing in popularity amongst patients and researchers.

A great example of that is cannabichromene (CBC). According to Science Direct, “CBC can be one of the most abundant nonpsychotropic CBs found in strains or varieties of Cannabis,” and “can cause strong anti-inflammatory effects.”

Researchers in Israel recently evaluated a combination of CBD and CBC and its effects in cellular models, and the results are encouraging. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Jerusalem, Israel: According to preclinical data published in the journal Cancers, plant-derived extracts containing both CBD and CBC (cannabichromene) are highly effective at killing head and neck cancer cells in culture.

Israeli researchers assessed the anti-cancer activity of 24 plant-derived cannabinoids in head and neck cell cultures.

They reported that the administration of CBD and CBC at a ratio of two-to-one “maximizes the cytotoxicity of HNSCC [head and neck squamous cell carcinoma] cells.” Authors also identified a similar “entourage effect” when CBD was combined with THC at a two-to-one ratio, but they suggested that the former combination possessed a more beneficial safety profile.

“Our research found CBC to enhance the cytotoxic effect of CBD, establishing additional support for the phenomenon of the entourage effect in phytocannabinoids,” investigators determined. “Considering the adverse psychotomimetic effects of THC, there is a clear advantage for favoring the CBD-CBC combination over CBD-THC for novel treatments for HNSCC.”

They concluded, “This research suggests using whole cannabis extracts, which are decarboxylated CBD-rich, to induce cancer cell death.”

Although cannabinoids possess well-established anti-cancer activity in preclinical models, scientists have largely been reluctant to try and replicate these results in controlled clinical trials.

According to a 2015 literature review, cannabis smoke exposure is not positively associated with the development of cancers of the head or neck. A 2009 study reported that the moderate long-term use of marijuana was associated with a reduced risk of head and neck cancers.

Full text of the study, “The effect of cannabis plant extracts on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and the quest for cannabis-based personalized therapy,” appears in Cancers. Additional information on cannabinoids and cancer is available from NORML’s publication, Clinical Applications for Cannabis and Cannabinoids.


autism brain mental health

Autism Case Study Finds Terpene-Enriched CBD To Be More Effective Than CBD Alone

One thing that I often point out to people is that the cannabis plant is one of the most dynamic plants on earth, and that in many ways humans are just beginning to scrape the surface of understanding and harnessing its full potential.

The cannabis plant, and wellness products derived from it, can be used to successfully treat a number of health conditions according to an ever-increasing list of peer-reviewed studies, as well as a growing body of patient testimonials.

Research dedicated to specific cannabinoids is becoming more common, thankfully, with research focused on cannabidiol (CBD) being particularly popular these days. One area of CBD-based research that is showing a lot of promise is CBD treatments for autism patients.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability caused by differences in the brain. Tens of millions of people around the world suffer from ASD, including an estimated 1% of all children worldwide.

Cannabis-based treatments are a fairly new thing when it comes to younger ASD patients largely due to prohibition-induced stigma, however, international researchers are exploring CBD and autism more and more thanks to reform victories in various jurisdictions.

A recent example can be found in Italy where a case study was conducted by researchers in Italy and Israel involving a young ASD patient. The patient was first diagnosed in 2008, and after exploring various conventional treatment regimens the patient eventually started to use CBD.

“On August 2018, after contacting a medical cannabis prescribing physician and consulting a specialized laboratory (THC Lab), G was first prescribed a CBD-rich cannabis extract containing 2.5% CBD. This was later exchanged with pure synthetic CBD oil at the same concentration. CBD oil was first administrated at a daily dose of 15 drops (12 mg CBD), corresponding to 0.34 mg CBD/kg bw (body weight) per day. CBD accompanied the Neuleptil treatment. This was found beneficial, completely eliminating aggression and leaving G happy and calm.” researchers stated in an article published by Frontiers in Pharmacology.

“CBD treatment was efficient for 3 years, until G turned 16 years old. From April 2021, with puberty, G became highly agitated. In order to control his symptoms, the dose of pure CBD was raised, reaching 27 drops (21.6 mg CBD), corresponding to 0.48 mg CBD/kg bw per day. However, the increased dose did not result in improved efficacy. Aggression had increased, reaching more than two major aggressive events per week. Aggressive events were severe (scored eight to nine on a 0–10 subjective aggressive scale, by G’s parents).” researchers stated.

“G’s regular CBD oil (pure synthetic CBD at a concentration of 2.5%) was enriched with one of two proprietary terpene blends, composed of terpenes demonstrated in pre-clinical and clinical trials to produce anxiolytic and calming effects. These included alpha pinene, limonene, linalool, beta caryophyllene and nerolidol. One of these two terpene blends was provided for daily use, and the other – for night use, or for times when G was highly agitated.” researchers also stated.

“Since August 2021, G has completed 9 months of treatment with terpene-enriched CBD oil. As can be seen in Table 1 and in Figure 2, aggression was significantly reduced, from two major aggressive events per week during treatment with synthetic CBD oil, to a complete elimination of aggressive events during treatment with the same synthetic CBD oil enriched with the selected terpene blends.” researchers observed.

“This case demonstrates the benefit of terpene-enriched CBD oil for treating aggression associated with ASD in an agitated adolescent. Enrichment of CBD with selected terpenes increased CBD potency, providing a therapeutic response wherein CBD alone had insufficient effect.” researchers concluded.

autism, israel, italy

back pain

Israeli Cannabis Study Finds Improvements In Patients With Treatment-Resistant Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a condition involving widespread musculoskeletal pain. The condition is accompanied by feelings of fatigue, lack of sleep, memory issues, and mood swings. It is estimated that as many as 1 out of every 20 people on earth suffers from fibromyalgia.

Women are much more likely to be diagnosed with fibromyalgia compared to men, with roughly seven times as many women suffering from the condition compared to men. Women between the ages of 20 and 55 are particularly susceptible to being diagnosed with fibromyalgia.

Pharmaceutical prescriptions, including anti-depressants, are common treatments for fibromyalgia, although most if not all of them can yield very undesirable side effects. Fortunately, cannabis provides a safer alternative to many pharmaceutical drugs, and a recent study in Israel found it to be effective. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Holon, Israel: Cannabis treatment is associated with quality of life improvements in patients with treatment-resistant fibromyalgia (FM), according to the results of a prospective cohort study published in the journal Pain Practice.

Israeli researchers evaluated cannabis’ efficacy in a cohort of 30 patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. All of the study’s participants had previously failed to respond to conventional pharmaceutical treatments. Investigators assessed patients’ quality of life, general health, and physical health following 30 days of cannabis treatment.

They determined: “Cannabis treatment … showed a marked improvement in general quality-of-life by 1.97 points out of a 5-point score and enhanced general health by 1.83 scores. Cannabis treatment also improved the physical health domain score by 1.5 points. Further examination of the physical health subdomains showed a reduction of 1.67 points in pain and discomfort, pain and fatigue (1.57), and an improvement of 2.13 points in activities of daily living.”

The authors further acknowledged that cannabis use was also associated with improvements in patients’ self-esteem, mood, memory, and concentration.

“This study suggests that cannabis treatment shows short-term improvement in quality of life through its influence on pain, sleep, and physical and psychological domains,” they concluded. “Further studies are still indicated to understand this potential and its long-term beneficial impact.”

Survey data reports that fibromyalgia patients frequently consume cannabis for therapeutic purposes, and several recent observational trials have affirmed its safety and efficacy in this population. A recent review of the relevant literature, published in 2021, concluded, “[T]he use of cannabinoids and cannabis carries limited side effects in the treatment of FM, and they can also improve some common and debilitating symptoms associated with FM, thus making them an adequate potential treatment option, when other treatment lines have been exhausted.”

Full text of the study, “The role of cannabis in treatment-resistant fibromyalgia women,” appears in Pain Practice. Additional information on cannabis and FM is available from NORML.


cannabis flower

Cannabis Associated With Improved Quality Of Life for Tourette Syndrome Patients

It is estimated that roughly 0.5-1% of the world’s population has been diagnosed with some level of Tourette Syndrome, although the actual rate of people suffering from the condition could be greater due to gaps in identification and treatment in some parts of the world.

According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, “Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by sudden, repetitive, rapid, and unwanted movements or vocal sounds called tics.” Currently, there is no cure for the condition.

Various treatments for Tourette Syndrome exist, with common ones being dopamine blockers, Botox injections, ADHD medications, anti-depressants, and anti-seizure medications. Everyone of those treatments can yield possible side effects. Fortunately, a recent study in Israel found that cannabis may help. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Tel Aviv, Israel: Tourette syndrome (TS) patients’ who consume cannabis products report significant improvements in their quality of life and reduce their intake of prescription medicines, according to data published in the journal Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research.

Israeli researchers assessed patients’ symptoms immediately prior to and following six months of cannabis treatment. Study participants generally inhaled THC-dominant cannabis flowers, though some patients also consumed extract formulations.

Researchers reported, “A statistically significant improvement in quality of life, employment status, and [a] reduction in the number of medications was found, with a statistically significant number of patients reporting improvements in OCD and anxiety symptoms after six months of treatment.” The authors also identified improvements in motor and vocal tic severity, but they acknowledged that these changes were not statistically significant.

Few patients reported experiencing adverse effects from cannabis treatment. Most commonly reported side effects were dry mouth, dizziness, and fatigue.

“Our findings suggest that medical cannabis may be an effective and safe option to improve comorbidities and quality of life in TS patients,” authors concluded. “Medical cannabis effectiveness should be further evaluated in large-scale randomized clinical trials.”

TS patients frequently report gaining symptomatic relief from cannabis, and several human trials have identified positive results in cohorts using either oral THC or inhaled cannabis.

Full text of the study, “Use of medical cannabis in patients with Gilles de la Tourette’s Syndrome in a real-world setting, appears in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research. Additional information on cannabis and TS is available from NORML.


back pain

Inhaled Cannabis “Safe And Effective” For Treating Lower Back Pain According To New Study

Since at least 1990, and likely prior, lower back pain is the leading cause of years lived with disability worldwide. According to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017, roughly 7.5% of the world’s population experiences some level of lower back pain.

The study defined lower back pain as, “pain in the area on the posterior aspect of the body from the lower margin of the twelfth ribs to the lower gluteal folds with or without pain referred into one or both lower limbs that lasts for at least one day.”

Lower back pain can be caused by a number of factors, including work-related injuries. For some suffering patients, lower back pain comes and goes. However, for many others, the lower back pain is chronic in nature and continues for weeks or months on end. In severe cases, the pain never goes away at all.

A growing number of patients suffering from chronic lower back pain are turning to cannabis for relief, including via inhaled consumption methods. According to a new study out of Israel, inhaled cannabis is safe and effective in those instances. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Haifa, Israel: The inhalation of THC-dominant cannabis flower long-term safely mitigates symptoms of chronic lower back pain in a manner that is more effective than the use of CBD-dominant extracts, according to observational trial data published in the Israeli journal Rambam Maimonides.

Israeli researchers assessed the safety and efficacy of THC-dominant flowers and CBD-dominant sublingual extracts in a cohort of patients with low back pain. Study participants engaged in the daily use of extracts for one year, followed by the use of cannabis flower in year two.

Researchers reported, “THC-rich smoked cannabis inflorescence was more effective than CBD-rich cannabis-extracts for inducing symptom relief in LBP [lower back pain],” as assessed on a visual analogue scale and by a disability index. Additionally, patients’ use of analgesic medicines fell significantly during year two of the trial. No serious adverse events were reported.

Authors concluded: “Our findings indicate that inhaled THC-rich therapy is more effective than CBD-rich sublingual extract therapy for treating low back pain and that cannabis therapy is safe and effective for chronic low back pain.”

An estimated 111,000 Israelis are currently licensed to use medical cannabis products. More than half of those patients utilize cannabis to treat chronic pain conditions.

Several prior studies have similarly demonstrated that cannabis use is associated with reduced opioid consumption in patients with chronic back pain.

Full text of the study, “Comparing sublingual and inhaled cannabis therapies for low back pain: An observational open-label study,” appears in Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal. Additional information on the use of cannabis for chronic pain is available from NORML.

israel, pain

israel flag

Israeli Bioreactor Yields Exponentially More Potent Cannabis Cells

Israel has long served as an international cannabis research hub. In fact, Israel is home to the most famed cannabis researcher of all time, Prof. Raphael Mechoulam of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Prof. Mechoulam, who is dubbed the ‘Godfather of Cannabis Research,’ is credited with being the first scientist to describe the chemical structure of cannabidiol (CBD), and also for being the first to isolate tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

During an era when most countries seemingly did everything that they could to hinder cannabis research, Israel embraced it. As a result, the country has an enormous head start on most, if not all, other countries when it comes to cannabis research.

As further proof that Israel is on the cutting edge of cannabis science, it is being reported that researchers in Israel have boosted the potency of cannabis cells twelve fold by creating them in a bioreactor. Per Times of Israel:

An Israeli company has cloned hemp cells and used a bioreactor to grow them into a substance with all the active compounds of cannabis — and 12 times the potency.

BioHarvest Sciences says the breakthrough could make the medical benefits of cannabis available in cheaper, cleaner and greener form. It has started applying for the necessary licenses to manufacture and sell its product for medical use in Israel and the United States.

How long it will take for the products to actually make it to patients is anyone’s guess at this point. For that matter, I suppose it’s still possible that the process could get derailed in some way, as all things international cannabis are typically more complex than they need to be.

It’s unclear if the end product has been tested on humans yet and determined to be safe for patient consumption. Sufficiently arriving at that determination alone could take some time and involve a process that is riddled with hurdles.

Still, it’s a possibly huge scientific breakthrough. The cannabis cells produced in the bioreactors reportedly only take three weeks to create from start to finish. That is a significantly shorter window of time compared to traditional cultivation methods (up to six months in some cases).


sleep sleeping bed nap

Study Associates Cannabis With Improved Sleep In Adults With PTSD

Post-traumatic stress disorder is a very serious issue all over the globe. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is estimated to be 3.9% in the general population, and a much higher rate for those that have lived in countries where war and conflict has occurred.

According to the Mayo Clinic, “Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that’s triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it.”

As with most health conditions, there are varying degrees of severity when it comes to PTSD, ranging from mild anxiety all the way to full blown panic attacks occurring regularly to the point that the patient can’t function. Flashbacks and regular nightmares are also symptoms of PTSD.

Fortunately, the cannabis plant has been found by a growing list of studies to help people that suffer from PTSD. A recent study in Israel found that cannabis use is associated with improved sleep among adults with PTSD. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Haifa, Israel: The use of cannabis prior to bedtime is associated with perceived improvements in sleep in subjects diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), according to data published in the Journal of Anxiety Disorders.

Israeli researchers assessed the impact of cannabis on sleep in a cohort of 77 PTSD patients. Study participants kept a daily journal where they recorded numerous sleep measures each morning.

Investigators acknowledged that the use of cannabis was associated with self-reported improvements in sleep onset and a reduction in the frequency of nightmares. Subjects who consumed products higher in CBD were less likely to report early awakenings.

“Our data suggest that MC [medical cannabis] may help reduce nightmares and [that] CBD in particular may be important for preventing early awakenings,” they wrote. “This provides a strong basis for further hypotheses testing, potentially through clinical trials, of the sleep-inducing effects of MC and for testing CBD in particular.”

Authors concluded, “Given the high comorbidity of PTSD symptoms and sleep disturbances and the potential for MC to have effects on both, a greater understanding of how patients experience the effects of MC on overall PTSD symptoms and sleep disturbances is warranted.”

Prior studies have similarly reported that cannabis products may be associated with improved sleep duration and with improvements in insomnia. The enactment of adult-use marijuana legalization has also been correlated with a decrease in the sale of over-the-counter sleep aid medications.

Full text of the study, “Post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep, and medical cannabis treatment: A daily diary study,” appears in the Journal of Anxiety DisordersAdditional information on cannabis and post-traumatic stress is available from NORML.

israel, ptsd

cannabidiol cbd

Israel Study Finds CBD Is “Highly Effective” In Adults With Refractory Epilepsy

When it comes to medical cannabis, arguably the most effective way that cannabis can be used is in cannabidiol (CBD) form to treat refractory epilepsy. Cannabis can effectively treat a number of conditions, however, it seems to be particularly useful among epilepsy patients.

CBD’s ability to successfully treat refractory epilepsy among child patients has received a lot of media attention in recent years, and for good reason. When pharmaceutical medications fail parents turn to CBD which is non-toxic and does not induce intoxication, and in a vast majority of cases, it proves to be a tremendous form of treatment.

Cannabidiol is also effective at treating adult patients that suffer from refractory epilepsy according to a new study out of Israel. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Tel Aviv, Israel: Adults with treatment-resistant focal epilepsy (epilepsy characterized by seizures arising from a specific part of the brain) respond favorably to the adjunctive use of plant-derived CBD dominant cannabis extracts, according to data published in the journal Neurological Sciences.

A Colombian investigator assessed the efficacy of high CBD/low THC extracts in a cohort of epileptic patients. Of those who maintained a cannabis-treatment regimen for at least three months, 80 percent experienced a greater than 50 percent reduction in seizure frequency at 12 weeks. Only a minority of patients reported any side-effects.

“The reduction in seizures frequency is maintained over time.” the study’s author concluded.  “The CBMF (cannabis-based magistral formulation) is a highly effective and safe therapy to treat adult patients with DRFE (drug resistant focal epilepsy).”

Israeli data published in June similarly reported that children with refractory forms of epilepsy experience significant reductions in seizure frequency following the long-term use of plant-derived CBD extracts.

In 2018, the US Food and Drug Administration granted market approval to Epidiolex, a prescription medicine containing a standardized formulation of plant-derived cannabidiol for the treatment of two rare forms of severe epilepsy: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. Shortly after approval, the US Drug Enforcement Administration reclassified Epidiolex to Schedule V of the US Controlled Substances Act — the lowest restriction classification available under federal law.

Full text of the study, “Cannabis based magistral formulation is highly effective as an adjuvant treatment in drug-resistant focal epilepsy in adult patients: An open-label prospective cohort study,” appears in Neurological SciencesAdditional information on cannabis and epilepsy is available from NORML.

CBD, israel

cannabidiol cbd oil extract concentrate

CBD Extracts Reduce Agitation In Dementia Patients According To Israeli Study

According to the World Health Organization as many as 55 million people worldwide live with some level of dementia. That number is expected to increase to 78 million by 2030 and up to 139 million by 2050.

Dementia is a syndrome that involves the deterioration of cognitive function among those that suffer from the condition. The deterioration goes beyond what is expected as a result of typical human biological aging.

The condition disturbs multiple higher cortical functions including but not limited to learning and memory, focusing, language, motor perception, and social cognition. Cases range from mild symptoms all the way to cases in which the patient is completely debilitated because of the condition.

Heightened agitation among patients suffering from dementia is common, as patients are often disoriented and become frustrated by their surroundings and interactions with people they are unfamiliar with. Fortunately, a recent study in Israel found that cannabidiol (CBD) may help. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Tel Aviv, Israel: The administration of plant-derived extracts containing high levels of CBD and low levels of THC reduces agitation in patients suffering from behavioral disturbances related to dementia, according to clinical trial data published in the journal Frontiers in Medicine.

Israeli researchers assessed the safety and efficacy of CBD-dominant extracts (30 to 1 ratio of CBD to THC) compared to placebo in a cohort of seniors (mean age: 79 years) with dementia. Subjects in the trial received sublingual drops of either cannabis extracts or a placebo (olive oil) three times daily for a period of 16 weeks.

“Patients in the investigational group experienced a significantly greater reduction in sleep disturbances, and in agitation and aggression sub-score using two different measurement tools. The improvements were accompanied with non-serious side-effects,” authors reported. “We recommend conducting a large scale randomized controlled trial on behavioral disturbances related to dementia and to compare clinical sub-types of dementia.”

The findings are consistent with those of other studies – such as those herehere, and here – reporting that the use of either cannabis flowers or extracts mitigates agitation in dementia patients.

Full text of the study, “Effects of rich cannabidiol oil on behavioral disturbances in patients with dementia: A placebo controlled randomized clinical trial,” appears in Frontiers in Medicine.


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