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Tag: CBD

anxiety depression

Study Finds That CBD May Offset THC-Induced Anxiety

The cannabis plant is one of the most versatile plants on earth, and quite possibly could be the most versatile plant on the planet. Although, that can prove to be a two-edged sword of sorts, in that when cannabis’ complexities interact with human biology it can yield some undesirable consequences.

To be clear, I am not stating that cannabis is harmful in the manner that cannabis prohibitionists describe. However, it is a fact that when some people consume cannabis, particularly if they consume an amount of cannabis that exceeds what they are usually comfortable consuming, it can contribute to the person experiencing some level of anxiety.

It is never fun to experience anxiety, whether it’s a little anxiety or a lot of anxiety. Typically, the effects of THC are responsible for the person experiencing an increased level of anxiety, and fortunately, another cannabinoid appears to be able to offset those effects to some degree according to a recent study out of The Netherlands. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Maastricht, The Netherlands: Subjects who consume cannabis containing equal amounts of THC and CBD report experiencing less anxiety than they do after consuming THC-dominant cannabis, according to trial data published in the journal Psychopharmacology.

Dutch investigators assessed perceived anxiety levels in a cohort of 26 subjects following single doses of vaporized cannabis. Subjects vaporized cannabis samples that were either high in THC (13.75 mgs), high in CBD (13.75 mgs), contained equal amounts of both CBD and THC, or that contained no cannabinoids.

Investigators reported that THC-dominant and THC/CBD equivalent samples significantly increased participants’ self-rated state of anxiety compared to placebo, but subjects reported less anxiety after consuming the latter. Specifically, they reported, “Combined treatment of THC and CBD delayed the onset of … anxiety, reduced its magnitude and shortened its duration compared to inhalation of THC alone.”

The study’s findings are consistent with those of prior studies documenting CBD’s anxiolytic effects, and determining that subjects who consume cannabis flowers containing equal ratios of THC and CBD are less likely to report experiencing adverse effects, such as feelings of paranoia.

Authors concluded: “The present study showed that cannabis containing equivalent concentrations of THC and CBD induces less self-rated … anxiety compared to THC-only cannabis in healthy volunteers. … The THC/CBD combination might be more favorable in clinical settings, and it may be a reasonable public health strategy to encourage cannabis breeds containing THC/CBD mixtures where recreational use of cannabis is now legal.”

Full text of the study, “Cannabis containing equivalent concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) induces less state anxiety than THC-dominant cannabis,” appears in Psychopharmacology.

CBD, netherlands

cannabidiol cbd

Israel Study Finds CBD Is “Highly Effective” In Adults With Refractory Epilepsy

When it comes to medical cannabis, arguably the most effective way that cannabis can be used is in cannabidiol (CBD) form to treat refractory epilepsy. Cannabis can effectively treat a number of conditions, however, it seems to be particularly useful among epilepsy patients.

CBD’s ability to successfully treat refractory epilepsy among child patients has received a lot of media attention in recent years, and for good reason. When pharmaceutical medications fail parents turn to CBD which is non-toxic and does not induce intoxication, and in a vast majority of cases, it proves to be a tremendous form of treatment.

Cannabidiol is also effective at treating adult patients that suffer from refractory epilepsy according to a new study out of Israel. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Tel Aviv, Israel: Adults with treatment-resistant focal epilepsy (epilepsy characterized by seizures arising from a specific part of the brain) respond favorably to the adjunctive use of plant-derived CBD dominant cannabis extracts, according to data published in the journal Neurological Sciences.

A Colombian investigator assessed the efficacy of high CBD/low THC extracts in a cohort of epileptic patients. Of those who maintained a cannabis-treatment regimen for at least three months, 80 percent experienced a greater than 50 percent reduction in seizure frequency at 12 weeks. Only a minority of patients reported any side-effects.

“The reduction in seizures frequency is maintained over time.” the study’s author concluded.  “The CBMF (cannabis-based magistral formulation) is a highly effective and safe therapy to treat adult patients with DRFE (drug resistant focal epilepsy).”

Israeli data published in June similarly reported that children with refractory forms of epilepsy experience significant reductions in seizure frequency following the long-term use of plant-derived CBD extracts.

In 2018, the US Food and Drug Administration granted market approval to Epidiolex, a prescription medicine containing a standardized formulation of plant-derived cannabidiol for the treatment of two rare forms of severe epilepsy: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. Shortly after approval, the US Drug Enforcement Administration reclassified Epidiolex to Schedule V of the US Controlled Substances Act — the lowest restriction classification available under federal law.

Full text of the study, “Cannabis based magistral formulation is highly effective as an adjuvant treatment in drug-resistant focal epilepsy in adult patients: An open-label prospective cohort study,” appears in Neurological SciencesAdditional information on cannabis and epilepsy is available from NORML.

CBD, israel

cbd cannabidiol

Artisanal CBD Extracts Display Long-Term Efficacy In Kids With Epilepsy

The World Health Organization estimates that as many as 50 million people worldwide suffer from some level of epilepsy, from mild cases to severe. Nearly four out of every five patients diagnosed with epilepsy live in developing countries.

Epilepsy is a chronic, noncommunicable disease within the brain that affects people of all ages. Unfortunately, many cases go undiagnosed, especially cases involving child patients. Undiagnosed cases make it extremely difficult to provide proper care for the suffering patient.

Fortunately, cannabidiol (CBD) has been found to be effective at treating epilepsy. It’s likely the only form of medicine that can be cultivated and processed all over the globe via the hemp plant. Yet another study has found CBD to be effective at treating kids with epilepsy, this time out of Israel. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Tel Aviv, Israel: Children with refractory epilepsy respond favorably to long-term treatment with plant-derived CBD extracts, according to data published in Pediatric Neurology.

Israeli researchers assessed the safety and efficacy of artisanal CBD-rich extracts in a cohort of adolescents with treatment-resistant forms of epilepsy. Among patients administered extracts for a period of at least one year, 51 percent experienced a significant decline in seizure frequency. Patients reported only nominal side-effects associated with CBD treatment.

Authors concluded, “Artisanal cannabidiol-enriched cannabis may be an effective and safe long-term treatment for refractory epilepsy.”

In 2018, the US Food and Drug Administration granted market approval to Epidiolex, a prescription medicine containing a standardized formulation of plant-derived cannabidiol for the treatment of two rare forms of severe epilepsy: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. Shortly after approval, the US Drug Enforcement Administration reclassified Epidiolex to Schedule V of the US Controlled Substances Act — the lowest restriction classification available under federal law.

Full text of the study, “The long-term effectiveness and safety of cannabidiol-enriched oil in children with drug-resistant epilepsy,” appears in Pediatric NeurologyAdditional information on cannabis and epilepsy is available from NORML.

CBD

hong kong china

Hong Kong Taking First Steps To Crack Down On CBD

Earlier this summer government officials in Hong Kong announced that they are pursuing a plan to prohibit CBD entirely. The announcement came after it was determined that as many as one-third of CBD products in Hong Kong contain trace amounts of THC.

Hong Kong is home to a number of CBD companies and not just ones that infuse CBD into such products as drinks and foods. The City’s first CBD cafe opened in 2020 and since that time a number of other similar businesses have popped up in Hong Kong.

With a CBD ban winding up, businesses in Hong Kong that have built their models on the popular cannabinoid will likely have to close. Per Bangkok Post:

An unregulated market in goods containing the cannabis-derived compound has flourished since the city’s first CBD cafe, Found, opened in July 2020. The Asian financial hub now has dozens of cafes and shops selling CBD, but a government proposal to ban the substance before the end of the year puts those enterprises in jeopardy.

“With a full ban for CBD in Hong Kong, we would be forced to probably shelve the Found brand as it exists today,” said Fiachra Mullen, chief marketing officer at Altum International Ltd, which owns Found brand as it exists today,” said Fiachra Mullen, chief marketing officer at Altum International Ltd, which owns Found and supplies CBD products to other businesses in the city.

Several peer-reviewed studies have found that CBD is effective at treating a number of conditions and is safe for human consumption. For that matter, studies have also determined the same to be true for THC.

Hong Kong should be embracing the CBD industry, not seeking to destroy it. CBD is legal in a growing list of other countries, and the CBD market is worth billions of dollars at the international level. It’s a shame that reefer madness is ruining it in Hong Kong.

CBD, china, hong kong

anxiety depression

CBD Is Safe And Effective For People With Treatment-Resistant Anxiety Disorders Per Clinical Trial

It is estimated that roughly 4% of the world’s population suffers from some level of anxiety, although, no one really knows the actual number. The condition often goes undiagnosed for various reasons, so it’s quite possible that the rate is much higher.

Anxiety involves intense, excessive, and persistent worry and fear about everyday situations. Physical symptoms can include a fast heart rate, rapid breathing, sweating, and fatigue.

Many of the pharmaceutical medications that are commonly prescribed for anxiety involve a laundry list of terrible side effects. Some cases of anxiety are so bad that pharmaceutical treatments don’t even work.

Fortunately, CBD may be able to help in those cases. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Melbourne, Australia: The adjunctive use of CBD safely and effectively reduces severe anxiety in young people, according to clinical data published in The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.

Australian researchers assessed the daily administration of CBD in a cohort of 31 young people (ages 12 to 25) with refractory anxiety. Participants self-titrated their daily doses of CBD (between 400 mgs and 800 mgs) over a 12-week period.

CBD dosing was associated with a “statistically significant reduction in anxiety severity,” as measured on the Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS). CBD dosing also “demonstrated an acceptable safety profile, with no serious adverse events reported and no clinically significant deviations to blood cell counts.”

Investigators reported, “Approximately 40 percent of all participants experienced a 50 percent reduction in OASIS score, and two-thirds experienced a 33 percent reduction.” They added, “By the end of treatment, the number of participants rated as markedly or severely ill had decreased from 17 (56.7 percent) to 5 (16.7 percent).”

Authors acknowledged that CBD’s greatest efficacy was observed during the final four weeks of treatment, indicating that a longer treatment regimen may potentially lead “to even greater improvements.”

They concluded: “Given that the patients included in our trial were some of the most severe and treatment resistant and had significant functional impairment and multiple failed treatment attempts, the reduction in anxiety severity observed here suggests that CBD has clinically meaningful anxiolytic effects. … The findings of this trial suggest that further investigation of CBD for anxiety in conjunction with usual care is warranted.”

Other human trials evaluating the use of CBD for anxiety have yielded inconsistent results. A 2019 placebo-controlled trial reported that daily CBD intake reduces symptoms of social anxiety disorder in teens, whereas a 2022 study determined oral doses of CBD to be ineffective at reducing symptoms of moderate-to-severe testing anxiety in college students. A 2018 Brazilian study reported that the consumption of 300mg of CBD significantly reduced anxiety due to public speaking, but that higher (600mg) and lower (150mg) had no effect.

Full text of the study, “Cannabidiol for treatment-resistant anxiety disorders in young people: An open-label trial,” appears in The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.

CBD

tobacco cigarette

CBD Use Associated With Reduced Tobacco Intake

A question has perplexed cannabis advocates since the dawn of cannabis prohibition – why is tobacco legal and cannabis illegal given how much more harmful tobacco is compared to cannabis?

Worldwide, tobacco use is responsible for killing over 7 million people every year. However, cannabinoids alone have never killed anyone in humanity’s entire recorded history.

This is not to villanize people that consume tobacco. Many tobacco users are victims of deceptive marketing practices and historically loose tobacco industry regulations. It’s also a personal choice as long as second-hand smoke exposure is mitigated.

With that being said, given how many people die annually from tobacco use and that the same cannot be said about cannabis, the findings of a new study demonstrating that CBD may be able to help reduce tobacco intake is a great thing. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Paris, France: Vaporizing a liquid formulation of CBD is associated with reduced cannabis/tobacco intake, according to data published in the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry.

A team of French investigators assessed the impact of vaporized CBD on daily cannabis consumption patterns in a cohort of 20 daily consumers. Nearly all of the subjects in the study smoked cannabis mixed with tobacco in joints. Prior studies have previously demonstrated that CBD administration mitigates smoker’s desire for tobacco cigarettes.

Of the nine patients who completed the 12-week trial, six of them reduced their daily consumption of cannabis/tobacco joints by 50 percent.

Authors concluded: “This research provides evidence in favor of the use of CBD in CUD [patients with cannabis use disorder] … and illustrates the interest of proposing an addictological intervention targeting at the same time tobacco and cannabis dependence in users who are co-consumers. … A double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled clinical trial is still needed to assess the efficacy of inhaled CBD in CUD.”

CBD consumption has previously been associated with reductions in alcohol intake as well as reductions in cue-induced cravings and anxiety in subjects with a history of heroin use.

Full text of the study, “Efficacy of inhaled cannabidiol in cannabis use disorder: the pilot study Cannavap,” appears in Frontiers in Psychiatry.

CBD, France, tobacco

driving car dui duii under the influence intoxicants

Study: CBD Does Not Impact Cognitive Function, Simulated Driving Performance

Every responsible cannabis consumer on the planet recognizes that operating a motor vehicle on a public roadway while being intoxicated by any substance, cannabis included, is not safe.

With that being said, just because someone has cannabis in their system does not automatically mean that they are too impaired to safely operate a motor vehicle.

That is demonstrated in the results of a recent study conducted in Australia. Below is more information about it via a news release from NORML:

Sydney, Australia: The oral administration of up to 1500 mg of CBD does not induce feelings of intoxication and is not associated with changes in simulated driving performance, according to data published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology.

A team of Australian researchers assessed the impact of varying dosages of CBD (ranging from 15 mg to 1500) versus placebo in 17 subjects. Study participants engaged in a series of simulated driving tests at approximately one hour and four hours after dosing. Investigators separately assessed subjects’ cognitive performance via their completion of a variety of computerized tasks. Participants were also asked whether they felt either “stoned” or “sedated” at any time during the trial.

Consistent with prior research, authors reported that CBD administration was not associated with either weaving or any other significant changes in simulated driving performance. Participants also failed to show any significant differences in either cognitive function or in their subjective feelings of well-being following CBD dosing.

Authors concluded: “The results of this study suggest that acute, oral CBD treatment at doses up to 1500 mg does not induce feelings of intoxication and is unlikely to impair cognitive function or driving performance. However, further research is required to confirm no effect of CBD on safety-sensitive tasks in the hours immediately post-treatment and with chronic administration.”

Full text of the study, “Effects of cannabidiol on simulated driving and cognitive performance: A dose-ranging randomized controlled trial,” appears in the Journal of Psychopharmacology. Additional information is available from NORML’s fact sheet, ‘Marijuana and Psychomotor Performance.’

CBD, driving

cannabis leaf

European CBD Novel Food Evaluations Put On Hold

Cannabidiol (CBD) products are extremely popular around the world, with consumers and patients buying them every day around the globe from brick and mortar stores, online, and virtually every other way that people buy any other type of product.

A vast majority of those products are either under-regulated or completely unregulated. That is not to say that every product is unsafe, however, what percentage of products are unsafe is nearly impossible to know right now.

Governments around the world are scrambling to try to implement rules and regulations for the emerging CBD industry, with many of them experiencing setbacks.

The latest example of that is in Europe, where the European Food Safety Authority announced this week that it will be putting a pause on processing CBD novel food applications. Below is more information about it via a news release from the European Food Safety Authority:

EFSA’s expert Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) has received 19 applications for CBD as a novel food, with more in the pipeline.

Chair of the NDA Panel, Prof. Dominique Turck said: “We have identified several hazards related to CBD intake and determined that the many data gaps on these health effects need filling before these evaluations can go ahead. It is important to stress at this point that we have not concluded that CBD is unsafe as food.”

There is insufficient data on the effect of CBD on the liver, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine system, nervous system and on people’s psychological well-being.

Studies in animals show significant adverse effects especially in relation to reproduction. It is important to determine if these effects are also seen in humans.

This latest delay is definitely disappointing, and will likely be pointed to by cannabis opponents as ‘justification’ to abandon the CBD industry entirely.

It’s not as if there is a lack of research on this subject. A quick search on PubMed.gov, which houses peer-reviewed study results from around the globe, lists 4,881 returns for a ‘cannabidiol’ search query. A search for ‘CBD’ returns 9,727 study results.

By comparison, a search for the common sleep aid ‘Lunesta’ returns only 314 results. Obviously, it’s not an apples-to-apples comparison, but it does provide context regarding the level of research that CBD has already been subjected to.

Hopefully the European Food Safety Authority gets the data that they think they need and can get back to processing applications sooner rather than later.

In addition to the growing body of peer-reviewed research, there are literally millions of people around the globe that now regularly use CBD products and the sky has yet to fall. It’s anecdotal but still worth noting.

CBD, Europe, novel foods

dentist teeth oral care

Researchers Find CBD To Be An Effective Form Of Oral Care Treatment

Having a wound in your mouth can be very uncomfortable, and in some cases, can lead to serious health issues. Developing a wound in your mouth can happen due to a number of factors, and regardless of the reason, it’s something that needs to be taken seriously.

Failing to properly care for a mouth wound can lead to infections in some cases, and at the very least, it will make the problem last longer if it goes untreated.

Researchers in Thailand recently examined the ability of cannabidiol (CBD) to treat oral inflammation, gingival wounds, and ulcers by using a scratch test assay and evaluating cytotoxicity.

“The hemp extract and CBD significantly decreased TNF-α release by up to 91.05 ± 2.91% and 50.78 ± 7.21% of LPS activity, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner, compared to 10 µg/mL hydrocortisone (61.67 ± 3.79%). The hemp extract and CBD also significantly decreased IL-1β release, also in dose-dependent response, up to 78.03 ± 3.34% and 85.87 ± 1.11% of LPS activity, respectively, compared to 5 µg/mL hydrocortisone (80.81 ± 3.55%).” the researchers stated.

“The mean percentage of closure of the wound area was 27.92 ± 1.21% when exposed to 5 µg/mL hemp extract and 33.49 ± 1.67% when exposed to 0.5 µg/mL CBD, compared to 24.34 ± 2.29% for non-treated control.” the researchers went on to say.

“Our study demonstrates that both hemp extract and CBD can inhibit TNF-α and IL-1β production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and promote wound healing in HGF-1 cells. This is the first to show that short-term exposure to hemp extract and CBD promoted gingival fibroblast wound healing, demonstrating that hemp extract and CBD have potential benefits in the treatment of oral inflammation and ulcers.” the researchers concluded.

If you are experiencing any of the conditions mentioned in this article make sure to contact a medical professional as soon as possible before trying any new treatments.

CBD

cbd oil cannabidiol

Does CBD Cause Physical Dependency?

Cannabidiol (CBD) is arguably the most popular cannabinoid on the planet right now. As evidence of that, consider the fact that ‘CBD’ is Google’d more often than ‘THC’, and that has been the case for multiple years now.

Interest in CBD has spiked partially because of increased availability thanks to recent policy reforms around the globe, as well as partially because it is effectively helping suffering patients treat their conditions.

CBD is just one of the dozens of cannabinoids found within the cannabis plant. It does not cause intoxication and can be infused into a number of products.

A team of researchers in the United Kingdom and the United States recently collaborated on a study to try to determine if CBD causes physical dependency and/or withdrawal symptoms in rats.

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a constituent of the cannabis plant with a diverse array of pharmacological activities as well as potential therapeutic uses. An oral formulation of CBD (Epidiolex® in the US; Epidyolex® in Europe) is approved for treating seizures associated with rare and severe forms of epilepsy. These studies, which supported the approval of the medication, investigated abuse-related effects of CBD in rats and nonhuman primates (NHPs) using drug self-administration, drug discrimination, and physical dependence procedures and characterized its pharmacokinetics.” the researchers stated in their study abstract.

“In NHPs (n=5) that self-administered midazolam (0.01 or 0.032 mg/kg/infusion), CBD (0.1-3.2 mg/kg/infusion) failed to maintain responding above vehicle levels. CBD maintained very modest levels of self-administration in rats (n=7-8) that self-administered heroin (0.015 mg/kg/infusion) and did not increase drug-lever responding, up to a dose of 150 mg/kg (p.o.), in rats (n=6) trained to discriminate 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.) midazolam. In juvenile (5-6 weeks old) and adult (10-11 weeks old) male and female rats, discontinuation of chronic treatment (twice daily for 20 days) with an oral formulation of CBD (20 or 100 mg/kg, p.o.) did not reliably produce signs of withdrawal.” the researchers went on to say.

“Pharmacokinetic studies confirmed that the dosing regimens used in these studies resulted in therapeutically relevant plasma levels. Taken together, the lack of reliable self-administration, the failure to increase drug-lever responding in rats trained to discriminate midazolam, and the absence of withdrawal signs upon discontinuation of chronic treatment indicate that CBD has very low abuse potential and is unlikely to produce physical dependence.” the researchers concluded.

Obviously, this study involved lab rats and not humans, so the results need to be kept in perspective. With that being said, with so many humans now using CBD around the globe, and no reports of dependency or withdrawal, the results of this study seem to be in line with what we are seeing among the global human population in real-time.

CBD

cbd cannabidiol

Does CBD Help Reduce Methamphetamine Withdrawal Issues?

Stigmatizing drug use and treating drug addiction as a crime are both wrong. Drug addiction should be treated as a serious public health issue and not as a criminal justice issue.

Part of battling drug addiction issues is implementing meaningful strategies for mitigating harm and helping people that are addicted to harmful substances work through withdrawal issues as they quit.

Methamphetamine is a substance that is considerably more harmful compared to cannabis. Meth is very addictive and can wreak havoc on a person’s life. Meth is often combined with other harmful substances and the use of it can lead to death.

CBD Study

Researchers in Iran recently conducted a study in which they explored the potential for cannabidiol (CBD) to help people that are trying to quit using methamphetamine.

“In this review article, we focus on the effects of CBD in the treatment of addiction in a preclinical investigation concerning the pharmaceutic effectiveness and the underlying mechanisms of action on drug abuse specially METH.” the researchers stated.

“Through multiple-mechanisms, there is a belief that CBD modulates brain dopamine responding to METH, resulting in a reduction of METH-seeking behaviors.” the researchers went on to say.

“As our studies indicate, CBD can decrease METH addiction-associated problems, for example, symptoms of withdrawal and craving.” the researchers concluded.

The Safer Choice

As stated previously, no one should ever be shamed for their drug use, whether that drug use involves methamphetamine or not. With that being said, people should also be helped when they are trying to curb addiction.

CBD is non-psychoactive and by all measures is a safe substance. It is widely available and is now infused in all types of products, from gummies to tinctures to beverages.

Talking to a friend or family member that is battling addiction is not an easy task, and it takes tact, compassion, and understanding. If you feel comfortable discussing the matter with someone you know, offer up CBD as an option for battling withdrawals.

In addition to this study, other studies have found that CBD may be helpful in battling other types of addictions as well, including addiction to cigarettes and alcohol – two substances that are also more harmful than cannabis.

CBD, methamphetamine

France flag

The French CBD Market

Highest French Court Freezes Ban on CBD flowers and leaves. Does this mean an ooh la la moment for the French CBD Biz? If not the European one beyond that?

The French have carved out a unique place in the European cannabis discussion, and further one that may well be emulated elsewhere. What is remarkable about such developments, however, is that while the French have some of the strictest laws in Europe about the plant, it is here that the CBD discussion is being moved forward in codified, legal decisions.

The Kanavape case, in other words, has only been the beginning of a dramatic about turn in French domestic policy about CBD. As a result of the same, the French government released new regulation on December 31, 2021. However, it was met with howls of discontent if not speedy legal action in response by the industry when it emerged that the marketing and sales of flowers and leaves would still be expressly interdit (forbidden). On January 24, the Conseil d’Etat, the highest administrative court in the country), agreed with the industry and froze the proposed ban.

This means that the French finally have a regulated CBD market for both flowers and products. It also, as a result, creates the first time that a European country (beyond Switzerland) has codified its hemp industry so concretely. To put this in the perspective this deserves – Germany, with the continent’s largest medical market, has still not figured out how to formally define CBD outside of the Narcotics Act.

To the extent that this discussion is likely to get a carveout in the upcoming drug reform conversation now afoot at the federal level politically, it is likely that the Germans will follow the French. To date, the issue of flower and leaf sales has been controversial here as well. The last German legal decision on hemp tea was in fact, indecisive.

The French movement on the same, in other words, is highly likely to influence not only the other largest economy in the region, but every other country as well. It may well also move the formal acceptance and clarification of at least CBD on a European level.

And that is a revolution that is way, way overdue.

CBD

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