Author: Marguerite Arnold

cannabis plant garden

New Zealand Approves Sale Of Domestic Cannabis Products

The island nation has relied on exports to treat patients so far. Allowing the dispensation of domestically cultivated cannabis will help the nascent industry grow and lower overall costs

Last week, New Zealand officials approved the beginning of the domestically sourced medical cannabis market. The Department of Health began allowing local producers to supply patients as of September 9. This has, of course, created new opportunities for domestic companies which have already established themselves in hopes of exporting to other countries.

Under the 2020 New Zealand Medical Cannabis Legalization Act, licensed doctors can prescribe cannabis to any patient and for any medical condition. However up until now, all of this had to be imported – mostly from Australia and Canada.

Two medicines have already been approved for local dispensation.

The first New Zealand cannabis company to achieve global GMP standards only happened last year.

A Shorter Supply Chain (and Lower Costs)

Unlike Germany, which only has three producers and, thanks to the highly stringent language of the first medical cultivation bid, imports the vast majority of the same, most of the medical cannabis in the New Zealand market will begin to be sourced domestically. It is unclear whether legalization of recreational cannabis will change that. In the meantime, Germany has been one of the top targets of New Zealand producers so far, as has South America.

That said, given the aftermath of Covid, with its disrupted supply chains, not to mention the much higher costs of energy, New Zealand’s decision may be replicated elsewhere – including countries in Europe.

Will a Switch to Domestic Supply Move Reform Forward?

It is highly likely, in addition to lowering costs – and expanding domestic patient numbers, that the decision to source domestically will also drive the “other” cannabis discussion forward too. This has been the case in many other places as medical use expanded. Indeed, in Germany, public support for recreational cannabis reform has increased steadily for the past five years since full medical reform became reality.

In 2020, the recreational discussion was narrowly defeated in New Zealand, when it was put up for a referendum vote during the last national election by 51-48%.

However, with more patients, and greater awareness of the efficacy of medical cannabis at home, attitudes are likely to continue to shift in support of full legalization.

Patients and their advocates are obviously ecstatic about the victory, which has, like everywhere else, been a long time in coming.

new zealand

hong kong china

Hong Kong Goes Backwards On CBD Policy

Hong Kong is planning on banning all cannabidiol (CBD) products, with the ban expected to go into effect in 2023. Will banning CBD really work?

John Lee, the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region said on Saturday, September 17, that the government will specifically outlaw CBD next year. Speaking as the opening speaker of an anti-drug event, Lee said that the HKSAR is ramping up its effort to “control drugs.” He also spoke of previous drug interdiction efforts by law enforcement agencies.

According to Lee, cannabis is a drug – and more worryingly, used by half of “drug abusers” in the country.

Last year, in 2021, the number of criminal cases related to cannabis rose by 15% and the amount of tonnage seized increased 150%. The number of reported “drug abusers” in Hong Kong halved in the last decade, dropping to 6,000 last year.

Hong Kong Moving with China

While drug use has always been harshly punished in Hong Kong, like the rest of Asia, the move to ban CBD is a bit of a surprise move. Possession of high THC plants and products can lead to a prison term of up to 7 years and a $125,000 fine. Drug trafficking can land the accused in prison for life.

It is more than likely that the HKSAR is following a Chinese mandate as the country comes directly under China’s rule.

Ironically, China is the world’s largest producer of hemp, although unauthorized cultivation and even seed possession can still lead to harsh punishment.

Marching Left (When the Rest of the World Is Going Right?)

It is unclear when and how cannabis reform will come to both China and Hong Kong. It is not as if there is no cannabis industry in this region of the world. Indeed, beyond hemp production, China is the largest global manufacturer (and exporter) of LED lighting used in commercial and indoor cultivation.

Thailand currently leads the region in progressing on cannabis reform, and even here there has been a controversy as the loosening of drug laws and restrictions has led to a boom in unauthorized production and sale, beyond strict medical use.

Other countries, such as Malaysia, are also studying the Thai example intently, and may move to legalize at least medical use next year.

For this reason, while China and now Hong Kong hold out as bastions of strict cannarepression, it is unlikely that other countries in the region will follow suit. This, no matter the backsliding in Hong Kong, is likely to drive the conversation forward, no matter the backlash that is, by its very nature and timing, is sure to be short lived.

hong kong

cannabis flower plants buds garden

Scenes From German Cannabis Legalization In Progress

The German government is clearly moving forward with plans to legalize the plant. A delegation of Bundestag members is currently touring California – and last week two members of the SPD gave a progress report via Instagram

If there was a portrait of the in-progress discussion over German cannabis legalization to be sketched, it would be this. Very earnestly, very soberly and very deliberately, lawmakers are trying to both research North American cannabis markets and give the German people a general idea of where the legislation is heading.

SPD Informal Briefing Via Social Media

Last week, two members of the SPD, Carmen Wegge and Dirk Heidenblut went on Instagram to give an update into how legalization legislation was progressing. There were few surprises – starting with the fact that the government does not believe that international law – of either the EU or global kind – will derail the legalization initiative.

Beyond this, they both stated that they expect the draft legislation to be introduced either at the end of this year or early next, and the legislation to pass by next summer.

Home grow is very likely to be included in all of this. Online sales are almost certainly not going to be allowed. The Bundestag is also looking at both pharmacies and social clubs beyond dispensaries for legal sales.

Beyond this, it is also likely that cannabis will be allowed to be both domestically grown and imported, and that decriminalization will be part of the final legislation – not be implemented beforehand.

German Bundestag Delegation in California

As reported in the German zeitung Tagesschau, the Bundestag is keeping busy during the California leg of their North American cannabis research tour. The delegation is visiting as many as three cities a day to understand how the state has implemented recreational reform.

The takeaways? That the legal cultivation of cannabis is not profitable in the American model, and that the black market is still its biggest competition. Further, while they were impressed by the range of edibles available and are not ruling this aspect of the rec market out at home, candy that appeals to children, like gummy bears, is likely to be excluded.

Beyond this, the fragmented nature of regulation, from town to town is not likely to be a part of the approach in Germany. A national approach is something that seems to be more attractive.


cannabis flower

Going Back Is Not An Option: From Germany To Thailand, Lawmakers Realize Cannabis Legalization Is On Horizon

In the last week, government officials from both Germany and Thailand have echoed a similar sentiment

In every movement, there comes a so-called “tipping point” when the majority of people understand that there is no way to preserve the status quo. In his famous book of the same name, Malcolm Gladwell defines a “tipping point” as “the moment of critical mass, the threshold, the boiling point” of an evolving situation that leads to a new and irreversible development.

That moment appears at this point, to have come for cannabis legalization.,

Last week, albeit on opposite sides of the globe, both Thai ministers and German elected representatives said the same thing.

Thailand right now is trying to figure out how to keep the cannabis genie in the medical bottle (and are largely realizing that they are failing). That said, there is no way, according to Health Minister Anutin Charnvirakul that renewing legislation criminalizing the drug and those who use it, can be reinstated.

In Germany, where a group of lawmakers have just gone to North America to see for themselves what reform looks like in both Canada and Canada, even the AfD (extreme right-wing party) representative on the trip echoed the same sentiment.

The time, in other words, has finally come.

How it all moves forward, however, is still very unclear.

The Devil Is in The Details

In both Thailand and Germany, lawmakers are realizing that legalization is an unstoppable force – but how to regulate the same is still a tricky question. Even if the same causes a backlash from more conservative elements in society.

In Thailand, this has meant the delay of a bill fully legalizing medical use because some fear that this will be seen as a blank slate to allow recreational use. That said, the Health Minister believes that classifying cannabis as a narcotic will only create a much larger problem and criminalize people who the government does not wish to punish.

In Germany, the current debate, beyond when the recreational legalization will pass, is how to phase in reform. Some believe that decriminalization should come first. Others believe that decrim and full legalization should happen at the same time. The latter is also the growing feeling in France.

One thing is for sure, no matter the final path to full and final legalization of cannabis. Nobody wants to keep the status quo. And that is a major victory for both the industry and reform advocates.

Germany, Thailand

white house usa washington dc united states

Is The Biden White House Waiting On Germany To Move Ahead On Recreational Reform?

The US president is putting off further conversation about American cannabis reform until after the mid-terms. Is he waiting for Germany if not Europe beyond that, to go first?

President Joe Biden’s track record on cannabis reform is very poor. This has not changed since he entered public service in Congress.

The most recent discussion is how fast the Administration might move forward on the reforms it has promised – namely stopping the federal imprisonment of people convicted of non-violent cannabis crimes. In July, six senators sent a letter to Biden to express their frustration over the failure to substantively address the many harms of Drug War policies. They urged Biden to use executive clemency authority to help speed this up.

So far, Biden has ignored such calls. Indeed, according to Marijuana Moment, a leading cannabis policy publication in the US, as of last Friday, the President announced that he was punting any new drug reform policy until after the mid-terms.

Is Biden waiting for other countries to go first?

The Giant Discussion Over International Cannabis Policy Is On

One of the reasons that Biden may be waiting until after the mid-terms, apart from the fact that Democrats seem to be on course to do well in the off-year elections, is that he may be waiting for the conversation in Germany, if not Europe, beyond that, to proceed. It is widely expected that a draft bill of the German cannabis legalization bill will be made public either late this fall or early next year. This, along with the working group of European nations now focused on cannabis legalization (which includes Malta and Luxembourg), is the first international attempt by multiple countries to address both domestic law and international regulation.

One of the thornier issues, according to conventional wisdom, is how countries (and regions like the EU) will move forward to implement recreational reform without thumbing their noses at, or withdrawing completely from, the two main international laws that now make cannabis illegal. Namely, the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Germany, after all is the fourth largest economy on the planet. America is number one, with a GDP five times larger. Nonetheless, the fact that Germany will go first, or so the rumours continue to say out of Berlin, will give political cover to those who have gone before (Canada and Uruguay) as well as those who have yet to take the plunge.

One thing is for sure. In Germany, national politicians are ready for the change, not to mention the German people – and no matter when Biden chooses to proceed, it is almost certain at this point, that Germany will go first.

Germany, joe biden, united states

airport airplane

Members Of German Bundestag Travel To North America To Examine Cannabis Legalization

Eight members of the Bundestag’s Health Committee head to North America to educate themselves about how reform works in both California and Canada

A delegation of eight members of the Bundestag’s Health Committee have landed in North America to examine cannabis legalization as it is done in the US and Canada. The group will be there between September 10-17.

Cannabis legalization will, however, only be part of the discussion. The delegation will also look at how the different countries have dealt with the Pandemic, the healthcare of underprivileged people and digitalization efforts.

The delegation consists of members of the Greens, the CDU/CSU, the SPD, the FDP, Die Linke, and one member of the AfD.

A Coordinated Strategy to Move Forward on Legalization

The move comes as the Bavarian Health Minister and another CSU member of the Bundestag’s health committee have commissioned, and are now promoting, a report from (very conservative) Bundestag lawyers, saying that cannabis legalization will violate EU law.

It also comes as a new Ipsos poll shows that an amazing 61% of Germans surveyed believe that cannabis reform should be legal.

One thing is clear. It is not likely that the current government will shrink from its current course, no matter the political opposition.

The German Vanguard

Internationally, the move to full legalization in Germany, the world’s fourth largest economy, is going to have a knock-on effect just about everywhere – which includes countries far from Europe’s borders.

The reason is that those tasked with reform on a federal level are also grappling, both domestically, and with other countries now on the verge of the same, about how to create a carve-out for cannabis in both European and International law.

On one front this should be relatively easy as the EU has already ruled that CBD at least, is not a narcotic. This means that most of the EU is out of compliance with new EU policy on the same. It also shows a path to legalize higher THC flower.

However, with Germany, Malta and Luxembourg moving forward within the EU (plus Holland and presumably at least Portugal), this will create an international push to address much larger issues – including how to carve cannabis out of international drug control treaties.

There is no way this process is going to be fast enough for patients, recreational users or even the cannabis industry itself. But the good news is that the train has left the station, and there is no turning back.


germany flag

Political Clashes Over Legalization Continue From Bavarian Politicians

Lawyers for the Bundestag Scientific Service of the Bundestag issue analysis of cannabis legalization, claiming it violates EU law – and the cry is picked up, again, by the conservative state Health Minister in Bavaria

The clash over legalization is getting nasty in Germany. In the last three weeks, in late August, a conservative politician, a CSU member and Klaus Holetschek, the state Health Minister of Bavaria, had called out the federal German Chancellor, Olaf Scholz, for proceeding on cannabis reform even though Scholz admitted that cannabis was not harmless.

Now, on the official website of the state of Bavaria, Holetschek, has issued a press release calling for the government to stop work on the legalization of cannabis – this time quoting a group of Bundestag lawyers who say that German cannabis legalization will run afoul of EU law.

There are several problems with this approach. The first is that yes, at present, EU law does prohibit recreational cannabis use – mirroring international law on the same issue. However, just as CBD was reclassified by the EU as not a narcotic (and German law is now out of compliance with the same), the entire matter is now being considered at a multilateral level across the EU. Using circular logic like this is patently disingenuous.

The second problem with this tactic of course, is that it smacks of special interests within the CSU/CDU, particularly from Bavaria, who seem to want to derail a popular legislative initiative by the current government. This line of reasoning also fails to mention that the group doing this very conservative analysis was tasked to do the same by CSU affiliated health politician Stephan Pilsinger  – a member of the Bundestag’s health committee – and also, not coincidentally, also hailing from Bavaria.

Why Are Conservatives from Bavaria Challenging Government Efforts To Legalize Cannabis?

There are several reasons that the Bavarian CSU appears to be increasingly vocal on the topic of federal cannabis reform. The first, of course, is that the state is known, domestically at least, to be the most conservative in the country. Kind of like a “German Texas.” Cannabis infractions are more harshly punished here than anywhere else in the country.

Beyond this, however, this campaign seems to be motivated as much by anti-cannabis voices from the party that lost control of the government last national election. This effort, in other words, appears to be the effort of a group of conservative politicians, on a state level, to slow down federal reform.

It is not a tactic unknown in the United States. Whether it is likely to work remains unseen. That said, given the statements of the federal Health Minister, Karl Lauterbach of late, that is not likely.


German Parliament

CSU Critiques Of Traffic Coalition Plan To Legalize Cannabis Meets Wide Mockery

CSU leader Markus Söder and Federal Health Minister Karl Lauterbach trade barbs over current government drug policy – which goes viral on German Twitter

It all began so innocently. Markus Söder, the leader of the “opposition” to the current parties comprising the Traffic Light Coalition, threw a weighted barb at the government’s drug policy during the CDU party congress in Hanover last weekend. Söder claimed that the legalization of cannabis would automatically lead to the legalization of drugs such as crystal methamphetamine (a highly addictive and dangerous street drug).

There were two problems with the approach. The first is that one of the parties now making up the coalition government, the Greens, did call for the legalization of “party drugs,” specifically cocaine, ecstasy, and amphetamines – but not crystal meth – in August. This is, however, not in the platform of the Traffic Light Coalition – which is only planning to legalize cannabis. A draft bill is expected to be made public either at the end of this year or early in 2023.

The second however, no doubt prompted by the above inaccuracies, was that Söder mispronounced the name of the drug – and instead, referred to the drug as “crystal mett.”

And this set off a rapid fire, and often humorous response.

Social Media Mockery

It was not only Lauterbach who mocked the mispronouncement on Twitter. His response? “Despite the scathing criticism from Markus Söder that the legalization of cannabis promotes the use of Crystal-Mett, we will not slow down on the same. At least vegetarians will remain safe.” Lauterbach was making a pun connecting the mispronunciation of the name of the drug to the German word for a chopped raw meat spread, frequently served with onions on bread.

This in turn set off an imaginative interchange where German Twitter users posted multiple pictures of what a “meat drug” might look like – or how it might be consumed.

This particularly imaginative response showing an addict applying heat to a spoonful of the referenced meat spread and then injecting it directly into his veins is entitled “The really hard stuff.”

The responses – both from the Health Minister and the Twitterverse seem to reflect the fact that Germans are rapidly warming to the idea of recreational cannabis reform – especially as the majority of the country is behind medical use.

This is a very good sign for the passage of full cannabis legalization sometime in the next 18-24 months aus Deutschland.


berlin germany flag

German Insurers Begin To Take New Tact On Medical Cannabis

AOK has begun a new program with German Society for Pain Medicine to decrease approval complexity, while Barmer has just issued a new digital section on its website on the medical efficacy of cannabis. Has the tide turned on insurer resistance to medical underwriting of cannabis claims?

There is clearly something afoot with German health insurers when it comes to medical cannabis this fall. Perhaps it is the change in political winds on a national level with pending draft legislation on recreational use – which will ensure that cannabis is a part of the wellness if not healthcare discussion permanently. Perhaps it is that patients have refused to stop suing their health insurers – or that doctors have not stopped prescribing.

Whatever the driver, there have been two interesting developments on the cannabis front in the past week from two of the largest statutory health insurers in Deutschland.

AOK Enters a Pilot Program to Make Approvals Easier

In a major development for German patients – initially at least in the first trial area – AOK has agreed to cooperate with the German Society for Pain Medicine. The group is comprised of doctors who are pain specialists. Last week, the group announced in an online press conference that they are calling for the approvals process for medical cannabis to be simplified. To that end, they have entered into a contract with AOK in Rheinland/Hamburg to roll out a new kind of approvals process where doctors, not the insurer or regional approver, will have the deciding voice in whether a patient can obtain medical cannabis.

This is a huge development – and will be closely watched across the rest of the country.

Barmer Issues a New Cannabis Specialty Web Presence

One of the other top three health insurers to approve cannabis claims (by number), Barmer, has also stepped into the discussion with an interesting new series of educational web pages about cannabis. It appears that it is an effort to educate patients about how to obtain the drug – and goes to great lengths to describe cannabis as a medicine of last resort. Interestingly, they also quote data gathered by the Association of Cannabis Supplying Pharmacies (or VCA) to demonstrate what kinds of patients (and conditions) cannabis was being successfully prescribed for.

The pages also specifically try to discourage patients from obtaining their cannabis from the black market and discusses the issue of cannabis withdrawal, while admitting it is less serious than other drugs.

It appears to be communication from the health insurer in response to a growing interest from their members about the drug. There is nothing on the information provided that Barmer is going to do anything differently in terms of approving claims faster – or in a different way.

The Insurance Question

Holland’s insurers stopped covering medical cannabis claims the same month that the German government agreed to proceed on such a program in 2017.

It is unlikely that such a development will occur in Germany. That said, how the legalization of recreational use cannabis will impact such coverage, but it is unlikely that insurers will be able to step out from this responsibility. There is too much evidence in Germany of medical efficacy – even if the drug remains, sadly, a drug of last resort for most and further, unbelievably difficult to access via legal, medical channels.


marsaxlokk malta

Malta Has Not Issued Any Licenses To Cannabis Associations And Clubs

Eight months after the new rules on cannabis use came into effect, the government has failed to issue a single license allowing such establishments to begin operating

Despite leading the way on cannabis legalization in Europe, the Maltese government has yet to issue a single license allowing non-profit cannabis associations and clubs to operate. The government has also failed to issue any regulations or guidelines for the operation of the same.

The government entity responsible for the same, the Authority on the Responsible Use of Cannabis (ARUC), has said that the process of issuing such licenses was “delicate” and “could not be done overnight.”

Where Is the Timeline?

According to Authority chairperson Mariella Dimech, a baseline study on the general population has been conducted. This study will serve as a foundation for the ARUC to create operating guidelines and regulations for such establishments.

That said, there are a few rules which are now in force that will undoubtedly shape the conversation.

Currently adults are allowed to carry up to 7g of cannabis when they venture outside of their houses – although they may not smoke in public. Residents of the island are also able to cultivate up to four plants.

Beyond this, the government has already established that such associations will be limited to 500 members each, must be located at least 250 meters away from schools or youth centres, and cannot advertise their services – including having signs that include either the word “cannabis” or pictures of the plant itself.

What Does This Mean for Other EU countries on the Cusp?

Nobody ever said that legalization was easy. On a federal level, it is even more challenging. See Canada, for starters. Yet in Europe, this conversation is even more complicated by the necessity of remaining in compliance with both regional and international laws. This is one of the reasons that Malta, along with Luxembourg and Germany, have begun multilateral discussions on how to legalize the recreational industry.

That said, it is clear that of the three, Malta has paved the way – even ahead of Luxembourg which promised a recreational market by 2023 (five years ago).

For this reason, it is unlikely that the creation of an entire non-profit industry will happen at a fast pace. It is also very likely that Malta is in discussion with the other two countries in the coalition on how to proceed domestically, particularly as what happens here may well be used as a blueprint for reform in at least these other two countries.


opioids painkillers pills

New Academic Study Links Cannabis Legalization To Decreasing Pharma Profits

The study, published in a non-profit, peer reviewed journal, is the strongest evidence yet that the legalization of cannabis directly (and negatively) impacts both the name brand and generics pharma industry

A new study published by PLOS ONE, an American non-profit, peer reviewed journal, and conducted by researchers at California Polytechnic State University and the University of New Mexico, has found that the pharmaceutical industry in the United States has consistently lost money after US states legalize cannabis. In fact, the average market loss (in each US state) was estimated to be $10 billion.

The study based its findings on a review of prescription drug sales and stock prices of 556 pharma companies between 1996 to 2019 and market trends that emerged after the legalization of either or medical and recreational cannabis.

This is the first time a study has been able to encapsulate such findings formally, although there has been a lot of anecdotal data released to support this claim.

The study also notes that the longer-term impact is actually more significant for generic drug makers than branded pharmaceuticals.

Pharma vs Weed?

Pharmaceutical companies, particularly in the United States, have devoted huge amounts of money and other resources to slow down the legalization of cannabis – including by dispatching lobbyists to state capitals as well as Washington DC.

In Europe, the discussion has always been different. As a result, there has yet to be a formal study on the decline of “pharmaceutical” profits thanks to cannabis legalization – in large part because the industry is already more regulated if not “pharma-esque” here. In Germany, for example, the government as well as other agencies, including associations representing both pharmacies and the insurance industry, has far more involvement and control over the same. Plus of course, so far at least, the industry here has been shaped by pharmaceutical standards.

That said, these findings are also likely to impact the discussion on the ground in Europe about the role of generic cannabis (flower or extract) as a way for governments and government-backed insurers to save money. As a result, this reality is also likely to speed up the acceptance of if not interest in the medical cannabis sector by established mainstream pharmaceutical firms.

That movement has already started in Europe – in large part because of the focus on integrating cannabis into the formal pharmaceutical and medical vertical. Spanish Alcaliber, the world’s largest manufacturer of opioid drugs as of 2014 began moving into the cannabis space around the time that Germany mandated the coverage of medical cannabis by health insurers. Beyond that, Dr. Reddy’s, an Indian company known for its lower cost generic drug focus, bought a German distributor at the beginning of this year.

Regardless, it is clear that medical cannabis is starting to come into its own – and further challenge mainstream medicines for a large variety of conditions.


Panama Flag

Panama’s President Approves Executive Decree Regulating Domestic Cannabis Industry

Laurentino Cortizo approved Law 242 at an executive level to move the now legalized industry forward from legislative bill to on the ground reality

Last Wednesday, President Laurentino Cortizo signed an executive decree to allow the now legalized Panamanian cannabis industry to actually move forward into implementation. He previously approved the new law legalizing medical use after it passed in the legislature last October.

The executive decree creates a regulatory framework for the domestic industry. This will allow both for the development of regulated cultivation, extraction, and manufacture of both the plant and drugs derived from it. The Ministry of Security is now tasked with overseeing operations and compliance. Consumption by patients will be tracked via a patient registration system.

“The goal of all this is that Panama has the best business model for the medical cannabis industry. Our intention is to promote in the medium and long term the establishment of local and foreign companies that will be able to supply the domestic market using raw materials produced in Panama,” said Mr. Cortizo.

Panama Leads the Region on Cannabis Reform

Cannabis was outlawed in the country in 1923 – seven years after the Panama Canal was completed. Panama became infamous, however, for the shipment of cocaine to the United States during last half of the 20th century.

Despite its tortured Drug War history, the country has moved forward with cannabis reform as a leader in Central America, becoming the first country to pass medical cannabis legislation last year (followed by Costa Rica).

This is interesting for several reasons, including the fact that Panama has long been known as a major exporter of agricultural products to North America. 28% of the total exports of the country end up in the United States.

It also opens up very interesting discussions about global cannabis shipping. The country is the site of the most important continental passageway (the Panama Canal), which saves ships from having to circumnavigate the tip of Latin America. If medical cannabis is now legal in Panama, this means that there should be no problem with shipping cannabis through the Canal. This in turn could be a boon for particularly Canadian markets – although it is a discussion which has yet to percolate in the US because of a lack of federal reform.

It is also very likely that Panamanian medically certified biomass (at minimum) will end up in European markets.

That said, it is clearly one more step towards the normalization and complete commodification of the plant as well as cannabis-based medications.


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